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Chapter 6

Asia: Location & Physical Features

Class 8 - Veena Bhargava Geography Solutions


Fill in the blanks

Question 1

The mountain ranges that run in various directions from Pamir Knot are the Sulaiman range, the Hindukush mountain and the Karakoram range.

Question 2

The Pamir Knot is the meeting point for Central Asian mountain ranges.

Question 3

Turan basin is drained by two rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya.

Question 4

The valley of Mesopotamia means between the rivers in Greek.

Question 5

The valley of Indus is formed by the river Indus and its tributaries.

Answer in one word

Question 1

The dividing range of Asia and Europe.

Answer

Ural mountains

Question 2

An inland sea into which the two rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya drain.

Answer

Aral sea

Question 3

A plateau between Elburz and Zagroz mountain ranges.

Answer

The Plateau of Iran

Question 4

The Euphrates and Tigris rivers flow into.

Answer

Persian Gulf

Question 5

Another name of Tibet.

Answer

Roof of the World

Give reasons

Question 1

The Northernmost part of Asia is marshy.

Answer

There are occasional depressions in the Ob-Yenisei lowland. When the northern part of the rivers freeze during winter, the outlet of water to the Arctic Sea is sealed. The water overflows and the middle parts have floods. The flood water flows to the depressions and fills them up. This way, vast swamps and marshy areas are created in the northern lowlands of Asia. Hence, the Northernmost part of Asia is marshy.

Question 2

An island off the coast of Gwadar in Balochistan of Pakistan is called "Mud Volcano Island".

Answer

An island off the coast of Gwadar in Balochistan of Pakistan is called "Mud Volcano Island" because the island is oozing out methane and mud.

Question 3

The lower courses and mouth of the rivers Ob, Yenisei and Lena remain frozen throughout the year.

Answer

The lower courses and mouth of the rivers Ob, Yenisei and Lena remain frozen throughout the year as they lie beyond the Arctic Circle and this region has extremely cold climate.

Answer the following questions in brief

Question 1

State the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of Asia.

Answer

Mainland Asia extends from latitude 10°S to 80°N. Three of the important latitudes, i.e., the Equator, the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle, pass through the continent.

Longitudinally, the continent stretches from 25°E to 170°W, covering nearly half of the land around the globe.

Question 2

List the physical divisions of Asia.

Answer

The continent of Asia can be divided broadly into five physical divisions-

  1. The Northern Lowlands
  2. The Central Highlands
  3. The Southern Plateaus
  4. The Great River Basins
  5. The Islands

Question 3

Name the three important parallels of latitudes which pass the continent of Asia.

Answer

The three important parallels of latitudes which pass the continent of Asia are-

  1. Equator
  2. Tropic of Cancer
  3. Arctic Circle

Question 4

How many independent states are there in Asia?

Answer

There are 48 independent states/sovereign countries in Asia.

Question 5

Why is Asia known as a Continent of Contrasts?

Answer

Asia is known as a Continent of Contrasts because of its political as well as physical geography.

Physically, it has the highest mountain peaks including the Mount Everest in Nepal and many of the longest rivers. It has the earth's lowest surfaces, the shore of the Dead Sea, 392 m below sea level in Israel. The Plateau of Tibet is the highest and most expansive plateau.

Climatically, it has recorded the highest temperature in Jacobabad in Pakistan and the lowest temperature in Verkhoyansk in Siberia. It receives the highest rainfall at Mawsynram near Cherrapunji in Meghalaya in India and has the largest area with less than 25 cm of rainfall per annum in desert regions.

Its vegetation varies from mosses and lichens of the Arctic region to the lush green forests of the equatorial regions. It has some of the most densely populated regions of the world (like Hong Kong, China etc.) whereas some parts of it have scarce population (like Siberia).

Asia has some of the world's most fertile river valleys like Ganga and Indus, Hwang Ho etc., which grow all kinds of rich crops and are densely populated. On the other hand, there are vast tracts where almost nothing can be grown and which sustain very small population, eg., Iran, Thar, Tibet etc.

It is the birth place of great religions like Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism etc.

Question 6

What does the CIS stand for? When did breaking up of the USSR take place?

Answer

CIS stands for Commonwealth of Independent States.

In 1991, the USSR collapsed and broke into 15 independent republics out of which 11 formed a loose organisation known as CIS or Commonwealth of Independent States.

Question 7

Write short notes on

(i) Northern Lowlands

(ii) Great River Basins

Answer

(i) In Asia, there is a vast triangular expanse of lowlands stretching from the northeast of Siberia to the Ural mountains and the Caspian sea in the west.

From the central Asian mountain range these islands slope towards the Arctic Ocean coast.

This region is drained by three long rivers- Ob, Yenisei and Lena. These rivers flow northwards and empty into the Arctic Ocean.

The vast lowland may be subdivided into parts-

  1. The Ob-Yenisei lowland in the northwest
  2. The Turan plain in the southwest
  3. The Siberian lowland in the northeast

(ii) Many rivers originate from the snow-laden mountains and flow through plains bringing large quantity of fertile alluvial soils and deposit them in their respective valleys. This is how the great river basins are formed.

These river basins are the most populated regions of Asia. They are-

  1. The Valley of Mesopotamia, formed by rivers Euphrates and Tigris.
  2. The Valley of Indus, formed by the river Indus and its five tributaries.
  3. The Valley of the Ganga and Brahmaputra, formed by the rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra and their tributaries.
  4. The Great Plains of China, formed by the three large rivers, the Huang Ho, the Chang Jiang and Sikiang.

Question 8

Name the two island groups of Asia.

Answer

The two island groups of Asia are-

  1. Kuril islands
  2. The Malay Archipelago

Question 9

Name the mountain ranges that emerge from Pamir knot in west and east directions.

Answer

The mountain ranges that emerge from Pamir knot in west direction are the Sulaiman Range and the Hindukush Mountain.

The mountain ranges that emerge from Pamir knot in east direction are the Karakoram Range and the Himalayan Mountain Ranges.

Question 10

Name the fertile river valleys of Asia.

Answer

The fertile river valleys of Asia are-

  1. The Valley of Mesopotamia, formed by rivers Euphrates and Tigris.
  2. The Valley of Indus, formed by the river Indus and its five tributaries.
  3. The Valley of the Ganga and Brahmaputra, formed by the rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra and their tributaries.
  4. The Great Plains of China, formed by the three large rivers, the Huang Ho, the Chang Jiang and Sikiang.
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