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Chapter 9

India: Climate, Flora and Fauna

Class 8 - Veena Bhargava Geography Solutions


Tick the right option

Question 1

Nainital is cooler as compared to Agra because of

  1. Altitude ✓
  2. Latitude
  3. Distance from the sea
  4. Desert region

Question 2

The northeast monsoon blows from

  1. SW to NE
  2. NW to SE
  3. NE to SW ✓
  4. North to South

Question 3

The southwest monsoon blows from

  1. SW to NE ✓
  2. North to South
  3. SE to NW
  4. NE to SW

Question 4

Tropical rainforests are found in

  1. East coast of India
  2. Western Ghats ✓
  3. Deccan plateau
  4. Indo-Gangetic plains

Question 5

Tidal forests are found in

  1. Ganga plain
  2. Sundarbans ✓
  3. Western Ghats
  4. Eastern Ghats

Fill in the blanks

Question 1

The temperate depressions are also known as Western disturbances.

Question 2

The word monsoon means season.

Question 3

The dry northeast monsoon winds blow from north-east to south-west.

Question 4

Tropical cyclones originate in Bay of Bengal.

Question 5

The natural habitat of Indian lion is Gir forest in Gujarat.

Question 6

A national park is a large area where several ecosystems exist freely.

Question 7

Project Tiger was launched by Kailash Sankhala on 1st April 1973.

Question 8

Endangered species of plants and animals are those which are so rare that it is likely that they may soon become extinct.

Answer in one word

Question 1

Cyclonic storms caused by low pressure in the Bay of Bengal.

Answer

Tropical cyclones

Question 2

The premonsoon showers in April-May.

Answer

Mango Showers

Question 3

The animals of a particular region.

Answer

Fauna

Question 4

Calamity of Baisakh month

Answer

Kali Baisakhi

Question 5

Forests with breathing roots in Sundarban Delta.

Answer

Tidal forests

Match the following

Question

Column 1Column 2
Season of the SW MonsoonRetreating monsoon
Clear and pleasant weather and low temperaturesDeserts
Withdrawal of monsoonJune to September
Xerophytic forestsCold weather
Use for extraction of resin and turpentineChir-pine

Answer

Column 1Column 2
Season of the SW MonsoonJune to September
Clear and pleasant weather and low temperaturesCold weather
Withdrawal of monsoonRetreating monsoon
Xerophytic forestsDeserts
Use for extraction of resin and turpentineChir-pine

Give reasons for the following

Question 1

The Himalayas act as a barrier for India.

Answer

The Himalayas act as a barrier for India as they obstruct the bitter cold winds from Siberia from entering the Indian sub-continent. The Himalayas also intercept the moisture laden southwest monsoon winds forcing them to shed their moisture, resulting in heavy rainfall in the north-east and Indo-Gangetic plains.

Question 2

Mumbai experiences less range of temperature as compared to Agra.

Answer

Mumbai experiences less range of temperature as compared to Agra because Mumbai is situated at the coast. Thus, it experiences equable climate whereas Agra is situated away from the sea, hence, it experiences extreme type of climate.

Question 3

Northwest India receives rainfall in winter.

Answer

Western disturbances originate in Mediterranean sea during winter and they are responsible for bringing rainfall in north-west India. Hence, Northwest India receives rainfall in winter.

Question 4

Chennai has more rainy months but receives less rainfall than Mangalore.

Answer

Chennai lies on the eastern side of the Indian peninsula and receives rainfall both from the Southwest monsoon and northeast monsoon winds. Hence, it has more rainy months. But, the South west monsoon winds blow parallel to the Chennai coast and do not cause much rainfall. Mangalore lies on the windward side of the Western Ghats and hence, it receives more rainfall than Chennai inspite of having less rainy months.

Question 5

Jaisalmer in Rajasthan receives very low rainfall from southwest monsoon.

Answer

Jaisalmer in Rajasthan receives very low rainfall from southwest monsoon because the southwest monsoon winds run parallel to the Aravalis. They do not give rainfall in Rajasthan as they do not get any obstruction from the Aravalis. Also, the high temperature in the desert increases their capacity to hold moisture.

Question 6

Many species are in the danger of becoming extinct.

Answer

Many species are in the danger of becoming extinct due to hunting by greedy hunters for commercial purposes. Pollution due to chemical and industrial waste, acid deposits, reckless cutting of forests to bring land under cultivation and inhabitation are also responsible for the imbalance in our ecosystem and endangering many species.

Answer the following questions in brief

Question 1

Name the four seasons of India.

Answer

The four seasons of India are-

  1. The hot dry season (March to May)
  2. The rainy season or the season of Southwest monsoon (June to September)
  3. The season of retreating southwest monsoon (October and November)
  4. The cold season or the season of Northeast monsoon (December to February)

Question 2

State any two characteristics of southwest monsoon.

Answer

Two characteristics of southwest monsoon are-

  1. Southwest monsoon winds cause seasonal rainfall from June to September.
  2. Rainfall is unevenly distributed and orographic in nature.

Question 3

What are the characteristic features of hot season? Give any two features of the hot season.

Answer

The characteristic features of hot season are-

  1. This season is marked by dry weather and excessive heat.
  2. In this season, the sun shines directly overhead the Tropic of Cancer.

Question 4

The Eastern Coast receives rainfall in winter.

Answer

During winter the dry offshore northeast monsoon winds blow from high pressure to low pressure. As they cross the Bay of Bengal, they gather enough moisture. As they strike the Coromandel coast in eastern India, they give heavy rainfall to Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu accompanied by stormy winds. Hence, the Eastern Coast receives rainfall in winter.

Question 5

What is meant by rainshadow area?

Answer

A rainshadow area describes the dry area on one side of a mountain or mountain range where less rain falls. This side of the mountain or mountain range is called the leeward side, while the side which has greater rainfall is called the windward side.

Question 6

In what way the vegetation of a place corresponds with its climate? Give two examples.

Answer

The vegetation of a place corresponds with its climate. The vegetation adapts to the climate of a place as can be seen by the following examples-

  1. Desert vegetation — The plants that grow in desert and semi-desert type of climate either have very thin leaves or no leaves. Their stems and leaves are often covered by sharp spines and they have long roots to draw water as the rainfall is very scarce.
  2. Tidal forest vegetation — Tidal forests have plants which are characterised by breathing roots which act as respiratory organs. The stilt like roots remain submerged underwater but can be seen during low tide. This tangled mass of root helps the plant to survive in the shifting mud of coastal region.

Question 7

Where are the deciduous forests found? Give two characteristics of the same.

Answer

The deciduous forests are found in the areas of average temperature of about 27°C and average rainfall between 150 to 200 cm.

They are found in the belt running along the Western Ghats, surrounding the belt of evergreen forests, both on eastern and western slopes. Another belt runs along the Shivalik range and Chhota Nagpur plateau.

Two characteristics of deciduous forests are-

  1. These forests shed their leaves for about 6-8 weeks during the spring and early summer during March/April, when sufficient moisture for leaves is not available. Forests of north temperate zone shed their leaves in autumn.
  2. These are most important economically as they yield valuable timber and several other forest products.

Question 8

Differentiate between a National Park and a Sanctuary.

Answer

National ParkSanctuary
Can include flora, fauna or any other objects of historical/geographic significance.The main aim is to protect a particular flora or fauna.
Boundaries are fixed and defined.There are no fixed boundaries.
No human activities are allowed.Human activities are allowed.
Not usually open to the public.It is open to the general public
Sanctuaries are usually formed by the order of Central or the State GovernmentNational Parks are formed by the state or central Legislature.
A national park cannot be downgraded to a sanctuary.A sanctuary can be upgraded to a national park.

Question 9

Why is it necessary to conserve forests?

Answer

The latest reports of the National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) indicate that the country is losing about 1.3 million hectares of forest cover every year. This will be detrimental to our national interest. Hence, there is an urgent need for conservation of forests.

Question 10

How do forests help in conserving our wildlife and ecobalance in nature?

Answer

Forests are the natural habitat of a large variety of wildlife. Wildlife refers to the animal species that are not domesticated. So, any living organism that lives in the forest region is associated with wildlife. It is found in almost all ecosystems such as rain forests, boreal forests, plains, grasslands, deserts etc. Wildlife provides great stability to our environment wherein they are involved in natural processes either directly or indirectly. Each living organism is placed in the food chain and is equally important, they may be a producer, a consumer or a decomposer, all these are interlinked and depend on each other for their survival. Since, forests provide a habitat to wildlife, they help in conserving our wildlife.

Animals release carbon-dioxide during respiration which is absorbed by plants. On the other hand, plants release oxygen during the process of photosynthesis. In this way the oxygen and carbon dioxide cycle goes on. Since forests contain a large number of plants and trees, they help in maintaining the balance between oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Forests also affect the climate of a place by regulating the temperature and rainfall of the area. They prevent soil erosion as well. Hence, forests help in balancing our ecosystem.

Question 11

Why is it necessary to conserve our wildlife resources?

Answer

Wildlife is the part and parcel of the ecosystem. They play a major role in maintaining the ecological balance. Some animals also help in cleaning the environment.

It is necessary to conserve our wildlife resources as-

  1. Wildlife serves as gene pool for pest-resistant strains — Scientists look for resistant strains in wild plants because wild plants have evolved features resistant to disease.

  2. Wildlife enriches food production — Bees, bats, birds and other animals help plants to become productive by serving as agents of pollination.

  3. Wildlife is a source of medicine — More than 40,000 species of plants, animals, fungi and microscopic animals are used in some way to benefit humans. More than a third of pharmaceuticals originate from wild plants.

  4. Wildlife has bequest value — The goal of wildlife conservation is to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and also to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness for humans and other species alike.

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