Tick the correct option
The population within the age group of 15-60 is regarded as:
- Dependent population
- Working population ✓
- Old-age population
- Rural population
People living in towns and cities are termed as:
- Rural population
- Urban population ✓
- Working population
The most favourable place for human settlements is:
- Mining areas
- Fertile plains ✓
Settlement in the Arabian Peninsula has been due to:
- Water wells
- Oil wells ✓
- Fertile soil
- Political factor
The Deccan Plateau of India is:
- Densely populated
- Moderately populated ✓
- Sparsely populated
After the Industrial Revolution, population grew rapidly because of:
- High birth rate ✓
- High growth rate
- Low birth rate
- Low growth rate
Match the following
|Column A||Column B|
|Densely populated region||Japan|
|Moderately populated region||Ladakh|
|Sparsely populated region||Bangladesh|
|A country with high life expectancy||China|
|A country with a low literacy rate||Ukraine|
|Column A||Column B|
|Densely populated region||China|
|Moderately populated region||Ukraine|
|Sparsely populated region||Ladakh|
|A country with high life expectancy||Japan|
|A country with a low literacy rate||Bangladesh|
Fill in the blanks
Man through his knowledge, intellect and skill transforms natural resources into valuable resources.
Man plays the dual role of both the producer and consumer of resources.
Human development in different environmental conditions of the world is a product of adaptation action.
The greater the number of productive population, the higher is the development of the country.
Rural population implies people living in villages.
Define the following
Workforce or working population
The population between the age of 15 to 64 years is the productive section of the population. It is termed as working population.
The percentage of population who know how to read and write is known as the literacy rate.
Birth rate refers to the number of live births per 1000 persons in a given geographical area per year.
Infant mortality rate
It refers to the number of deaths of children below 1 year of age per 1000 persons in a given geographical area per year.
Growth rate of population
The difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country is called the natural growth rate of the population.
A population pyramid is a graphical representation that shows the distribution of various age groups and gender in a population.
Birth rate and Death rate
|Birth rate||Death rate|
|Birth rate refers to the number of live births per 1000 persons in a given geographical area per year.||Death rate refers to the number of deaths per 1000 people in a given geographical area per year.|
Immigration and Emigration
|When someone moves to a country from another place, it is known as Immigration.||When someone moves out of a particular place, it is known as Emigration.|
|When a person immigrates to a country its population increases.||When a person emigrates from a country, its population shrinks.|
Give reasons for the following
People are the greatest resource of the world.
People are the greatest resource of the world because man plays the dual role of both the producer and consumer of resources.
A country which is underpopulated cannot exploit its natural resources to the maximum.
A country which is underpopulated cannot exploit its natural resources to the maximum because there is a shortage of skilled labour.
The fertility rate in many developed and developing countries has dropped to about two children per woman.
The fertility rate in many developed and developing countries has dropped to about two children per woman due to the factors like literacy, economic development or urbanization making the idea of having big families impractical.
Emigration always has negative effect on the population.
Emigration always has negative effect on the population because the higher educated people leave the country and this leads to shortage of skilled and competent people.
Answer the following questions in brief
Give the importance of high literacy rate.
The literacy rate is important because it shows how much of the country is educated. A country with high literacy rate has educated, trained and skilled population. The high literacy rate in developed countries like USA, France, Japan etc., have proved how human resource can develop a country, in spite of lack of natural resources.
Name the sparsely populated regions of the world.
The sparsely populated regions of the world are-
- The hot deserts like Sahara and Kalahari of Africa, the Arabian desert and Thar desert of Asia, Atacama and Patagonia desert of South America, Great Australian desert and Arizona desert of USA and arid areas of Western Mexico.
- The cold deserts of Central Asia, the Gobi and Takla Makan desert, a portion of Ladakh in India.
- Cold polar regions of Arctic in North America, Eurasia and Antarctica
- The dense Equatorial Rainforests of the Amazon and Zaire basin.
What is meant by density of population? How is it measured?
The total number of people in a country in relation to its land, is known as population density.
It can be measured as follows-
Population density = Total population of a country / Total land area of the country
How does migration of people affect the total population of a country?
People migrate with the intention of settling permanently in the new location, so migration of people leads to decrease of the population of a country i.e., shortage of skilled and competent people in a country.
Define the following terms:
(a) Infant mortality rate
(b) Life expectancy
(a) Infant mortality rate — It refers to the number of deaths of children below 1 year of age per 1000 persons in a given geographical area per year.
(b) Life expectancy — Life expectancy is the average age at which people die in a given geographical area.
What is meant by population change? Explain in brief.
Population change is the change in the number of people during a specific time. It occurs due to births, deaths and migration of people.
What is meant by population pyramid? Explain with the help of examples.
A population pyramid is a graphical representation that shows the distribution of various age groups and gender in a population. Population pyramid for youthful population is shown below:
For example, Niger's population pyramid has mostly aged 15 and under and the majority of the population is under 5 years old, which shows how half of the population dies before they reach 30. But in developed countries like USA, Japan, the decrease in birth rate and death rate have kept the base and top at medium level and life expectancy is higher.
Compare and contrast the impact of overpopulation and underpopulation.
The following points compare and contrast the impact of overpopulation and underpopulation of a country-
- Utilisation of Resources — Overpopulation may increase the pressure on the natural resources and the food and fresh water supplies would be inadequate or insufficient which may result in depletion of natural resources while underpopulation may lead to under utilization of resources due to the shortage of labour and less demand.
- Impact on Environment — Overpopulation would increase the demand for area and this would result in deforestation or loss of natural habitat and increase in pollution levels while underpopulation decreases the pressure on natural resources and the pollution level would also decrease.
- Impact on Employment — Overpopulation would result in scarcity of jobs while underpopulation would create labour shortage which would have both positive and negative impacts.
In conclusion, both overpopulation and underpopulation are not considered good for the economy.
Give one point of difference in the population pyramid of India and Japan.
Population pyramid of India — In India, where the death rates are decreasing, the pyramid is broad at the base in the younger age group, as more infants survive to adulthood. Population pyramid of India is shown below:
Population pyramid of Japan — In Japan, low birth rates make the pyramid narrow at the base, decreased death rates allow number of people to reach old age. Population pyramid of Japan is shown below:
What is meant by MEDCs and LEDCs?
MEDCs stands for More Economically Developed Countries.
LEDCs stands for Less Economically Developed Countries.