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Chapter 16

Pollution

Class 9 - Total Geography Morning Star


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

What is environmental pollution?

Answer

Environmental pollution refers to any unfavourable alteration of our surroundings, wholly or largely as a byproduct of man's actions. These changes may affect man and other organisms.

Question 2

Give the definition of a pollutant.

Answer

Pollutants are the products which are released into the biosphere in large quantities and which affect the normal functioning of ecosystems and have an adverse effect on plants, animals and man.

Question 3

Give the difference between natural and man-made pollutants.

Answer

Natural pollutantsMan-made pollutants
The natural pollutants are produced as a result of natural phenomena.Man-made pollutants are produced as a result of human activities.
Example:
Volcanic eruptions and wild fires.
Example:
Industrial pollution and vehicular emissions.

Question 4

What is air pollution? Give a source of air pollution.

Answer

Air pollution is the excessive concentration of foreign matter in the air which adversely affects the well being of human beings, animals, plants and their environment.

Fumes released by automobiles like cars, scooters etc are one of the causes of air pollution.

Question 5

Define water pollution.

Answer

Water pollution can be defined as alteration in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of water, making it unsuitable for designated use in its natural state.

Question 6

What is soil pollution?

Answer

Soil pollution is defined as the change in physical, chemical and biological conditions of the soil through man's intervention resulting in degradation in quality and productivity of the soil.

Question 7

Why should we avoid soil pollution?

Answer

We should avoid soil pollution because of the following reasons-

  1. The pollutants enter the food chain at the plant level and get magnified as we move up the food chain.
  2. The pollutants remain in the soil for relatively longer periods.

Question 8

What is radioactive pollution?

Answer

Radioactive pollution is defined as the increase in natural background radiation, emerging from the activities of man using naturally occurring or artificially produced radioactive materials.

Question 9

What is noise pollution?

Answer

Noise pollution is defined as an unwanted sound that is an irritant and a source of stress.

Structured Questions

Question 1(a)

With reference to pollution, explain the following:

(i) Air pollution

(ii) Water pollution

Answer

(i) Air pollution is the excessive concentration of foreign matter in the air which adversely affects the well being of human beings, animals, plants and their environment.

(ii) Water pollution can be defined as alteration in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of water, making it unsuitable for designated use in its natural state.

Question 1(b)

Explain what is radioactive pollution.

Answer

Radioactive pollution is defined as the increase in natural background radiation, emerging from the activities of man using naturally occurring or artificially produced radioactive materials.

Question 1(c)

What are man-made causes of radioactive pollution? Why is radioactive pollution more harmful than other types of pollution?

Answer

Manmade radiations originate from the use of radioactive materials. These materials are used in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear fuel. The radioactive materials used in atom bombs are very destructive.

Nuclear fuels in atomic reactors produce pollution. The heat given out during fission process generates two types of wastes-

  1. The fission products remaining in both the primary and secondary fuels.
  2. Waste products in the coolant

The disposal of radioactive wastes causes pollution.

Radioactive pollution is more harmful than other types of pollution because the high level products of nuclear wastes remain in the environment for several hundred years. Leakage in nuclear reactors causes environmental pollution and the leakage may result in the death of a number of people.

Question 1(d)

How is noise a source of pollution? Why do we need to look at the problem of noise pollution seriously?

Answer

Noise is a physical form of pollution which is not directly harmful to the life supporting systems. It is not fatal to human life, yet its effects cannot be overlooked because repeated exposure to noise reduces the sleeping hours, productivity or efficiency of a human being and it affects the peace of mind and invades the privacy of a human being.

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