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History — Chapter 3

Jainism and Buddhism

Class 9 - Total History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Question

Question 1

What are angas? What is the subject matter of these angas?

Answer

The teachings of Lord Mahavira after gaining omniscience, was compiled by his disciples in 12 parts called Angas.

The Angas discuss religious rites, stages of householder's life, the vows of chastity, rules of conduct and other features of Jain philosophy.

Question 2

What are Tripitikas? Name the three Tripitikas.

Answer

Tripitikas are most important literary works of Buddhists which were written on long and narrow leaves in Pali language and were stored in baskets. The word Tripitikas means "The Three Baskets".

The three Tripitikas are:

  1. The Vinaya Pitaka
  2. The Sutta Pitaka
  3. The Abhidhamma Pitaka

Question 3

State two important causes for the rise of Jainism and Buddhism.

Answer

The two important causes for the rise of Jainism and Buddhism are:

  1. Corruption in religion — Priests were extracting money from common people in the name of rituals. Brahmins had become stronger and their hold on society needed to be weakened.
  2. Rigid caste system — The rigid caste system had resulted in so many restrictions and did not allow social mobility. People were in need of a liberal religion.

Question 4

Who was Vardhamana Mahavira? Give the significance of both parts of his name.

Answer

Vardhamana Mahavira was the twenty-fourth and the last tirthankara. He is considered as the founder of Jainism.

He was called Mahavira because he was very brave and had also saved his colleagues. At the time of his birth, his father's kingdom was very prosperous and so he was called Vardhamana (meaning prosperity).

Question 5

List any four vows prescribed for the Jains.

Answer

The four vows prescribed for the Jains are:

  1. Ahimsa: Non-violence
  2. Achaurya or Asteya: Not stealing
  3. Satya: Not telling a lie
  4. Aparigraha: Not possessing property

Question 6

What are known as the Triratnas?

Answer

The Triratnas or the Three Jewels are the principles to be followed to attain the ultimate goal of salvation. The Triratnas are:

  1. Right faith
  2. Right knowledge
  3. Right conduct or action

Question 7

Give two causes for the spread of Jainism.

Answer

The two causes for the spread of Jainism are:

  1. Local Dialect — Mahavira adopted the language of common people, i.e, Prakrit instead of Sanskrit to preach his doctrines.
  2. Royal Patronage — Jainism received royal patronage of Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas. Chandragupta Maurya is also said to have converted to Jainism. Kharvela helped in spread of Jainism in eastern India.

Question 8

Name the two sects into which Jainism got divided.

Answer

The two sects into which Jainism got divided were:

  1. Shvetambaras or White clad.
  2. Digambaras or sky-clad.

Question 9

Who was Gautam Buddha? Where was he born?

Answer

Gautam Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was born at Lumbini near Kapilavastu, in Nepal.

Question 10

What are known as Four Great Sights?

Answer

The sights that led to Great Renunciation of Gautama Buddha are called Four Great Sights. They are:

  1. An Old Man
  2. A Sick Man
  3. A Dead Man
  4. An Ascetic

Question 11

How did Buddha attain enlightenment?

Answer

After leaving home, Gautam Buddha studied under renowned teachers of Rajgriha and then went to Gaya. He practised severe penance and led a life of extreme austerity and at the age of thirty-five he attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya in Bihar.

Question 12

Give four Noble Truths of Buddhism.

Answer

The four Noble Truths of Buddhism are:

  1. The world is full of suffering.
  2. The suffering has a cause.
  3. Desire is the cause of suffering.
  4. If desire is stopped, suffering can also be stopped.

Question 13

Give four points of the Eightfold Path of Buddha.

Answer

The way to Nirvana or the path that leads to removal of suffering is known as the eightfold path. The four points of the Eightfold Path of Buddha are:

  1. Right action — To remain away from theft, luxuries and violence
  2. Right thought — To remain away from empty rituals and worldly evils.
  3. Right belief — To give up desire.
  4. Right speech — Speak the truth and do not think ill of others.

Question 14

Give the meaning of Buddha and Tathagat.

Answer

The meaning of Buddha is the Enlightened One.
The meaning of Tathagat is the founder of Truth.

Question 15

Name any two principles that governed the Sangha.

Answer

The two principles that governed the Sangha are:

  1. Membership — The members were required to renounce the world and take oath before joining sangha.
  2. Ten Commandments — They had to lead a disciplined life and follow the Ten Commandments.

Question 16

State any two features of Buddhism that attracted people towards it.

Answer

The two features of Buddhism that attracted people towards it are:

  1. The importance given to conduct and values rather than claims of superiority based on birth.
  2. Compassion for the young and the weak .

Question 17

Give two differences between Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism.

Answer

The two differences between Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism are:

  1. Hinayana denied the existence of God while Mahayana was a combination of Buddhism and Hinduism with faith in God.
  2. Hinayana believed that Buddha was a human being who attained enlightenment and Nirvana through his own efforts but Mahayana regarded Buddha as an incarnation of God who could ensure salvation.

Question 18

Give two causes for decline of Buddhism.

Answer

The two causes for decline of Buddhism are:

  1. Split in Buddhism — The popularity and prestige of Buddhism suffered due to its division into Hinayana, Mahayana and sixteen other sects. Each sect had its own followers.
  2. Corruption in Sangha —Buddhist sangha received patronage of royalty and had become very rich. The monks and nuns started leading a luxurious life instead of simple spiritual life.

Structured Questions

Question 1

With reference to the sources of information about Jainism and Buddhism, state the significance of the following:

(a) Angas

(b) Tripitikas

(c) Jatakas

Answer

(a) The Angas are regarded as the most important part of Jain doctrines. They are the compilation of whatever Lord Mahavira taught after gaining omniscience. The Angas were compiled in Twelve parts and are collectively known as Dwadashangi. The two well known and most important Angas are the Aacharang Sutra that deals with the code of conduct for Jain monks and the Vyakhya Pragnapti or Bhagavati Sutra that gives comprehensive description of Jain doctrines. The Angas discuss religious rites, stages of a householder's life, the vows of chastity, rules of conduct and all the philosophies of Jainism. Based on these angas, the seers also compiled 12 auxiliary works that came to be known as Upangas. The Angas and Upangas provide detailed knowledge about Jainism.

(b) The Tripitikas are considered as the most important literary works of Buddhists. The three tripitikas are following:

  1. The Vinaya Pitaka — It deals with rules and regulations for monks and nuns. It gives an account of life and teachings of Buddha as well as aspects of ancient history, customs and arts of the period.
  2. The Sutta Pitaka — It comprises the discourses of Buddha and some of his disciples such as Sariputta, Ananda and others. The Dhammapada (way of truth) is an important component of this Pitaka.
  3. The Abhidhamma Pitaka — It describes Buddhist philosophy, working of human mind and state of matter.

Besides being the most reliable source of information about Buddhism, the Tripitakas also provide a glimpse of the social, economic and political life of people of that period.

(c) Jatakas refer to tales which describe the previous births of Buddha in animal and human forms. According to Jatakas the future Buddha may appear as a king, an outcast, a God, an elephant; but in whatever form, he exhibits some virtue that the tale thereby highlights. The Jatakas provide very little biographical material about Gautama Buddha's own life but throw a significant light on the political, economical and social conditions of people from the fifth to the second century BC. They also reflect Buddhist morals, ethics and principles.

Question 2

With reference to Jainism and Buddhism, answer the following questions:

(a) Give briefly the background of socio-economic conditions in 6th century BC.

(b) State any three causes for the rise of Jainism and Buddhism.

(c) What caused the division of Jainism into two sects?

Answer

(a) In 6th century BC, with expansion of Aryan settlements to the east, there were rapid changes in the socio-economic conditions. Society at some places had traits of Tribal political organisation while at other places kingdoms were on the rise. Materialism and spiritualism both existed side by side. People started to lead a settled life due to surplus production, expanding trade and market. There were wars among tribes for territory expansion. The expansion of territory created large kingdoms called Janapadas. A number of Janapadas joined together to form bigger and powerful independent kingdoms called Mahajanapadas. During this period orthodox religious beliefs and practices were challenged and even rejected by the new sects like Jainism and Buddhism.

(b) The three causes for the rise of Jainism and Buddhism were:

  1. Reaction against Ritualism — Religious ceremonies had become very expensive and were beyond the means of ordinary people. This gave rise to faiths that were simple and inexpensive.
  2. Corruption in Religion — The Priests used to extract money from people on the name of yajnas, rites and rituals. Kshatriya rulers protested against such practices. Both Jainism and Buddhism were founded by Kshatriya princes.
  3. Rigid Caste System — The caste system had become so rigid that it was not allowing any social mobility. Interchange of caste was impossible. Jainism and Buddhism gave a simple and liberal society to the people of that period.

(c) The division of Jainism into two sects was the result of differences between Bhadrabahu and Sthulabhadra. Bhadrabahu took Jainism to Karnataka and Sthulbhadra was based in Magadha. Their was clash of ideas between the two and subsequently the Jainism divided into Shvetambharas and Digambaras led by Sthulabhadra and Bhadrabahu respectively. Shvetambharas wore white clothes and covered their faces with small white cloth to avoid killing the tiniest of insects or germs that might enter the nose while breathing while Digambaras did not believe in covering their bodies. According to them, living without clothes signified detachment from worldly pleasures and it avoided killing of life forms.

Question 3

With reference to Jainism answer the following questions:

(a) Who was Mahavira? Why was he called Jina?

(b) State the five vows which a Jain householder has to take.

(c) State the Jains view on Karma and salvation.

Answer

(a) Mahavira was the twenty-fourth and last of the tirthankaras. He is considered as the founder of Jainism because he made Jainism popular and systematic.
Mahavira was called Jina because after obtaining the supreme knowledge, he subdued his desires and became the conqueror. The term jina was used for those who have conquered their desires.

(b) The five vows which a Jain householder has to take are:

  1. Ahimsa: non violence.
  2. Achaurya or Asteya: not stealing.
  3. Satya: not telling a lie.
  4. Aparigraha: not possessing property.
  5. Brahmacharya: practising chastity.

(c) Jains view on Karma and salvation are:

  1. Karma — The Jains believed that one should be responsible for one's own Karma or actions and good deeds alone liberate a man from the cycle of life and death.
  2. Salvation — Jains believed in salvation or Moksha. According to them it was necessary to practice the tri-ratnas of right faith, right knowledge and right action to attain salvation.

Question 4

With reference to Buddhism, answer the following questions:

(a) Who was Gautama Buddha? How did he achieve enlightenment?

(b) What is known as 'Dharamachakrapravartana'?

(c) How did Buddha have a large following?

Answer

(a) Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was a Kshatriya prince who left his home to find solution for pain and sufferings of men.
After leaving home, Gautama studied under renowned teachers of Rajgriha and then went to Gaya. He practised severe penance and led a life of extreme austerity and at the age of thirty-five he attained enlightenment.

(b) After enlightenment, Gautama Buddha delivered his first sermon at Deer Park in Sarnath near Varanasi in presence of five ascetics. This event in the history of Buddhism is known as 'Dharamachakrapravartana' meaning the turning of the wheel of sacred law.

(c) Buddha gave importance to conduct and values rather than claims of superiority based on births. Buddha insisted on feeling of compassion for the young and weak. He preached universal brotherhood of mankind. He wanted people to live in peace, setting aside all their difference. He gave people a simple and inexpensive way to salvation. These are a few ways by which Lord Buddha got a large following.

Question 5

With reference to Buddhism, answer the following questions:

(a) What is the eight fold path?

(b) What was impact of Buddhism on the socio-religious life of the people?

(c) What role did Sangha played in the spread of Buddhism?

Answer

(a) The way to Nirvana, in Buddhism, or the path that leads to removal of suffering, is known as the Eightfold path. It is also known as Ashtangika Marg or the Middle Path. The Eightfold Path includes:

  1. Right action — To remain away from theft, luxuries and violence.
  2. Right thought — To remain away from empty rituals and worldly evils.
  3. Right belief — To give up desire.
  4. Right living — Not to have dishonest dealing with others.
  5. Right speech — Speak the truth and do not think ill of others.
  6. Right effort — Work for deliverance from sins and for the welfare of others.
  7. Right recollection — Think about pious things.
  8. Right meditation — Concentrate on only what is right.

(b) Buddhism led to improvement in social and religious life of people. The hindus started a reform movement within hinduism. The costly yajnas and sacrifice and rigidity of caste system were done with. Buddhism fostered intellectual tradition and exposed the weakness in our society. The weaker section of the society who had been subjected to many atrocities got an opportunity to have their say in matters of political and social life.

(c) Sangha played an important role in the spread of Buddhism as it was established to spread Buddhism and it's teachings. Members of Sangha had to take an oath before joining it. Sangha became very powerful and helped to spread Buddhism far and wide. The members had to follow the ten commandments or Paramita to lead a disciplined life. The Bhikshus and Bhikshunis had to roam around for eight months in a year spreading Buddhism. Many Viharas were made for them to sleep and take rest. In the Viharas, the members led a life of chastity, austerity, devotion and purity.

Question 6

With reference to the given pictures, answer the following questions:

With reference to the picture given, answer the following question. Identify the two preachers, whose images are given. Name the religions founded by them. Mention three main teachings of each of the two religions founded by these preachers. Mention any two similarities and two dissimilarities between the two religions founded by them. Jainism and Buddhism, Total History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 9.

(a) Identify the two preachers, whose images are given. Name the religions founded by them.

(b) Mention three main teachings of each of the two religions founded by these preachers.

(c) Mention any two similarities and two dissimilarities between the two religions founded by them.

Answer

(a) The given images and religion founded by them are:

  • A → Gautama Buddha. He founded Buddhism.
  • B → Mahavira. He founded Jainism.

(b) Three main teachings of Buddhism are:

  1. Karma — Buddhism believed in the theory of Karma. It said that man is the maker of his own destiny and it believed in rebirth.
  2. Nirvana — The ultimate goal of life is to attain Nirvana or Salvation which is freedom from the cycle of birth and death.
  3. Ahimsa — Buddhism insisted on the path of non-violence.

Three main teachings of Jainism are:

  1. The Five Vows — A Jain householder has to take the following five vows:
    1. Ahimsa: Non-violence
    2. Achaurya or Asteya: Not stealing
    3. Satya: Not telling a lie
    4. Aparigraha: Not possessing property
    5. Brahmacharya: practising chastity
  2. Nine truths — According to Jainism ,the knowledge of Nine Truths is essential and only renunciation is the shortest way to salvation. These nine truths are:
    1. Jiva (Living Things)
    2. Ajiva (non-living things)
    3. Punya (results of good deeds)
    4. Pap (sin)
    5. Ashrav (good deeds)
    6. Sanvar (hindrances in the way of karma)
    7. Bandha (bondage)
    8. Nirjara (destruction of karmas)
    9. Moksha (salvation)
  3. Karma — Jainism believed in the theory of Karma. It preached that one should be responsible for one's own Karma or actions. Good deeds alone liberate a man from the cycle of life and death.

(c) Similarities:

  1. The founders of both the religions belonged to Kshatriya clan and followed the similar path of renunciation.
  2. Both of them did not accept the Vedas.

Dissimilarities:

  1. Buddhism was completely new religion in 6th century BC while Jainism was founded long before Mahavira.
  2. Buddhism followed a middle path but Jainism believed in hard penance.
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