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History — Chapter 13

The Modern Age in Europe — (C) Industrial Revolution

Class 9 - Total History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

What is meant by the term, 'Industrial Revolution'?

Answer

The Industrial Revolution is the name given to a series of changes that brought about a transition from production by hand to production by machine, from small-scale production to large scale production, from handmade goods to machine-made goods. It denotes all those changes that took place in the field of industry during the second half of the 18th century and the first half of 19th century.

Question 2

Name any two consequences of the Industrial Revolution in the economic field.

Answer

Two consequences of the Industrial Revolution in the economic field were:

  1. By 1820s, income level for most workers began to improve.
  2. The economy was expanding at a rate that was more than twice the pace at which it had grown before Industrial Revolution.

Question 3

What is Capitalism?

Answer

The economic system which generates and gives power to capitalists (owner of wealth or capital) is known as Capitalism.

Question 4

Who was Karl Marx? Name his outstanding work.

Answer

Karl Marx was a German political philosopher and economist who gave revolutionary socialist ideas.

His outstanding works are Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital.

Question 5

What is meant by Socialism?

Answer

Socialism is defined as an economic system in which the means of production are owned not by private individuals but by the community in order that all may share more fairly in the wealth produced. The evil effects of Capitalism and the spirit of improving the condition of workers gave birth to socialism.

Question 6

How did the evil effects of Industrial Revolution help in the rise of Socialism?

Answer

As a result of Industrial Revolution the society was divided into two distinct classes — the Capitalist and the Socialists. The capitalists had their selfish interests and they began to exploit the workers. They paid them low wages and made them work for long hours. They amassed great wealth and began to lead a luxurious life at the cost of the workers. The rich were becoming richer and the poor, still poorer. This gulf went on widening and created social disharmony and ultimately led to struggle between the two classes. The socialist took the cause of the workers and tried to save them from the exploitation of the capitalists.

Question 7

Mention any two effects of the Industrial Revolution on the general public.

Answer

Two effects of the Industrial Revolution on the general public were:

  1. Loss of traditional jobs — Women in households, who had earned income from spinning, found the new factories taking away their source of income. Skilled labourers lost their jobs as new machines replaced them.
  2. Exploitation — In the factories, people had to work for long hours under harsh conditions. Factory owners and managers paid the minimum amount necessary for a workforce, often recruiting women and children at low wages.

Question 8

Mention any two advantages of Industrialisation?

Answer

Two advantages of Industrialisation are:

  1. Industrialisation increased the national wealth, raised the standard of living, made life more comfortable. The economy was expanding at a rate that was more than twice the pace at which it had grown before Industrial Revolution.
  2. The widespread poverty and constant threat of mass starvation that had haunted the pre-industrial age were reduced.

Question 9

Mention two bad effects of the Industrial Revolution on labourers.

Answer

Two bad effects of the Industrial Revolution on labourers were:

  1. Exploitation — People had to work for long hours and under harsh condition. Factory owners and managers paid the minimum amount necessary for a workforce, often recruiting women and children to tend the machines because they could be hired for very low wages.
  2. Stress and Strain — Due to division of labour, each worker had to perform one task rather than a single worker doing the entire job. This improved productivity but made jobs repetitive and boring. Workers had to labour for many hours often more than 12-14 hours and people worked 6 days a week. Factory workers faced strict rules and close supervision by the managers. Safety was not a matter of concern, and workers often suffered serious even fatal accidents.

Question 10

Mention any two differences between 'Capitalism and Socialism'.

Answer

Sl. No.CapitalismSocialism
1Capitalism refers to the economic system in which the means of production like labour, raw material, tools and machines are owned by private individuals or groups of them for profit.Socialism refers to the economic system in which the government owns and controls the means of production (as factories) and distribution of goods.
2In Capitalism production is for profit; useful goods and services are a by-product of pursuing profit.In Socialism production is for use; useful goods and services are produced specifically for their usefulness.

Structured Questions

Question 1

The industrial revolution marked a change from hand work to machine work and from domestic system of production to factory system of production. In this context, discuss the role of the following factors in ushering in the Industrial Revolution:

(a) Invention of machines.

(b) Availability of coal and iron.

(c) Improved Transportation.

Answer

(a) Invention of machines — Invention of machinery and its use in manufacturing was the starting point of Industrial revolution. John Key, a weaver of Lancashire, invented 'The Flying Shuttle' which increased the speed of weaving. It also made the weaving of broad cloth by one man possible. A Lancashire weaver named James Hargreaves invented a machine called the spinning Jenny. It could spin eight threads at a time instead of one thread of the old-fashioned spinning wheel. Richard Arkwright invented the 'Water Frame'. It produced harder and stronger yarn than that of the spinning Jenny, but it was run by water power. It ushered the factory system.

(b) Availability of coal and iron — Natural resources such as iron and coal were available in England. The iron and coal mines were situated close to each other. Iron was used in making machines. The coal provided cheap fuel. Both these factors helped in the development of industries.

(c) Improved Transportation — In the second half of the 18th century, transport system in England was adequate. The use of tarcoal and tar enabled the construction of roads in many European countries. Steamboats and steamships were used extensively. George Stephenson designed his first locomotive engine, which was used for hauling coal in the Killingworth colliery. This brought about a revolution in transport. James Watt invented the steam engine. The discovery of steam as a source of power, facilitated the industrial revolution as it was used for transport both on land and sea.

Question 2

With reference to the Industrial Revolution in England, state the role of the following factors:

(a) Availability of Raw material.

(b) Transport System.

(c) Growth of population.

Answer

(a) Availability of Raw material — England had a large colonial empire. From her colonies she could get raw material at cheaper rates for her factories. These colonies also served as markets for the British manufactured goods.

(b) Transport System — The use of tarcoal and tar enabled the construction of roads in many European countries. Steamboats and steamships were used extensively. George Stephenson designed his first locomotive engine, which was used for hauling coal in the Killingworth colliery. This brought about a revolution in transport. James Watt invented the steam engine. The discovery of steam as a source of power, facilitated the industrial revolution as it was used for transport both on land and sea.

(c) Growth of population — The population was growing rapidly with developing science and technology as death rate had declined. This created a huge demand of goods like clothes, food etc. In other words we can say that the increasing population served as huge market for the ready products. The rural population had risen sharply as new sources of food became available, and the death rates declined due to fewer plagues and wars. At the same time, many small farms disappeared. Thus, people from the rural areas migrated to the urban areas for employment, education, cultural benefits, better freedom and enjoyment.

Question 3

With reference to the rise of Capitalism, answer the following questions:

(a) What were the causes for the rise of Capitalism?

(b) What was the impact of Capitalism on the working class?

(c) How did it give rise to Socialism?

Answer

(a) The causes for the rise of Capitalism were:

  1. Increase in population — People from the rural areas migrated to the urban areas for employment, education, cultural benefits, better freedom and enjoyment.
  2. Legal Requirement — There was the new enclosure law which required farmers to put fences or hedges around their fields to prevent common grazing on the land. That's why small farmers had to sell their fields as it was expensive to put fences and search for work elsewhere. These factors combined to provide a ready workforce for the new industries.
  3. Growth of Towns — New manufacturing towns and cities grew dramatically. Many of these cities were located close to the coalfields that supplied fuel to the factories.
  4. Mass Production — Mass production destroyed the domestic system of production. The growth of industries and use of huge machines gave rise to factories.
  5. Disappearance of Small Farmers — Small farmers shifted to new industrial towns. They were forced to seek employment in the factories because they were replaced by big landlords.

(b) The impact of Capitalism on the working class is summarised below:

  1. There was loss of traditional jobs. Women in households earning income from spinning and traditional handloom weavers were impacted as they could no longer compete with mechanised production. Skilled labourers lost their jobs as new machines replaced them.
  2. People worked long hours under harsh conditions. Factory owners and managers often recruited women and children and paid very low wages.
  3. Jobs were repetitive and boring. The labourers had to work more than 12 to 14 hours a day and six days a week. Safety was not a matter of concern. They faced strict rules and supervision with their life ruled by the clock.
  4. Working people moved to cities and cities became over crowded. The working poor lived in crowded areas in the centre of cities in shoddy houses.
  5. By 1820s, income levels of workers began to improve and people adjusted to the different circumstances and conditions.

(c) The capitalists had their selfish interests and the began to exploit the workers. They paid them low wages and made them work for long hours. They amassed great wealth and began to lead a luxurious life at the cost of the workers. The rich were becoming richer and the poor, still poorer. This gulf went on widening and created social disharmony and ultimately led to rise of Socialism. The evil effects of Capitalism and the spirit of improving the condition of workers gave birth to Socialism.

Question 4

With reference to Socialism, answer the following questions:

(a) What is meant by the term 'Socialism'?

(b) What were the causes for the rise of Socialism?

(c) Who was Karl Marx? What is his contribution to Socialism?

Answer

(a) Socialism is defined as an economic system in which the means of production are owned not by private individuals but by the community in order that all may share more fairly in the wealth produced.

(b) The causes for the rise of Socialism are:

  1. As a reaction to the evils of capitalism — The capitalists had their selfish interests and they began to exploit the workers. They paid them low wages and made them work for long hours. They amassed great wealth and began to lead a luxurious life at the cost of the workers. The rich were becoming richer and the poor, still poorer. The evil effects of Capitalism and the spirit of improving the condition of workers gave birth to socialism.
  2. Trade union movements — These forced the governments to recognise the rights of workers. It had brought the division of society into the rich and poor into sharp focus.
  3. The Chartist Movement — Between 1836 and 1848, the condition of the labour in Britain was very bad. They had to face many hardships and wanted social and political equality. Their leaders put up their demands before the Parliament in the form of a charter. It aimed at getting the right to vote for workers.

(c) Karl Marx was a German political philosopher and economist who gave revolutionary socialist ideas.
Karl Marx considered capitalist society as a society divided between two classes — the working class which produces all value; and the owning and employing class, which without producing anything, exploits the value or profits. The working class would take over power, organised production for its own benefit as a class. This new society would be 'socialist' in nature, a society without exploitation. The system behind this society is known as 'Marxist Socialism' or 'Socialism' as conceived by Karl Marx himself. He with his associate Frederick Engels wrote 'Communist Manifesto' and 'Das Kapital'. Communist Manifesto was basically a charter of demands or a manifesto for the German Communist League, that was later published in 1848.

Question 5

With reference to Capitalism and Socialism, state the following:

(a) Difference between Capitalism and Socialism in terms of control over means of production and profit.

(b) Two key proponents each of Capitalism and Socialism. Give examples of two countries where each economic system is prevalent.

(c) What according to you is better of the two economic systems? Give reasons to support your answer.

Answer

(a) In Capitalism, the means of production like labour, raw material, tools and machines are owned by private individuals or groups of them for profit whereas in Socialism, the government owns and controls the means of production (as factories) and distribution of goods.

(b) The two key proponents of Capitalism were Richard Cantillon and Adam Smith while the two key proponents of Socialism were Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels.
Two examples of countries where Capitalism is prevalent are the USA and the UK while two examples of countries where Socialism is prevalent are China and Denmark.

(c) Capitalism is better of the two economic systems. It believes in free market and is opposed to government intervention. Many Capitalist countries like the USA, the UK, Canada and Australia; are developed and successful. To prevent the drawbacks of Capitalism, the government should enforce laws in favour of labourers and working class to prevent their exploitation. Government should enforce laws of fair minimum wages and reasonable working hours. Labour laws relating to safety of labourers and protection against exploitation should be enforced to check the evil effects of the Capitalist economic system.

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