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Civics — Chapter 1

Our Constitution

Class 9 - Total History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

What is meant by the term Constitution?

Answer

Constitution is a comprehensive document containing the set of rules that describe the rights and duties of its citizens and the manner according to which the governance of a country is to be carried out. It regulates the position and powers of the three organs of the Government — the legislative, the executive and the judiciary; and states how they are inter-related.

Question 2

On the basis of which plan was the Constituent Assembly constituted?

Answer

The Constituent Assembly was constituted on the basis of the Cabinet Mission Plan (1946).

Question 3

What is known as the 'Objectives Resolution'?

Answer

When the Constituent Assembly started the work of drafting the Constitution, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru proposed the 'Objectives Resolution' on December 13, 1946. The Resolution highlighted the objectives and laid down the national goals. The main points of the Objectives Resolution were:

  1. Free India will be nothing but a 'republic'.
  2. The ideals of social, political and economic democracy would be guaranteed to all people.
  3. The republic would grant Fundamental Rights to citizens.
  4. The state would safeguard the rights of minorities and backward classes.

Question 4

By whom was the Objectives Resolution proposed?

Answer

The Objectives Resolution was proposed by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.

Question 5

Who was appointed as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the constitution?

Answer

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was appointed as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the constitution.

Question 6

When was the constitution adopted and passed?

Answer

The constitution was adopted and passed on 26th November, 1949.

Question 7

When did the constitution come into force?

Answer

The constitution come into force on 26th January, 1950.

Question 8

Why was January 26 chosen for the commencement of the constitution?

Answer

The date January 26 was chosen for the commencement of the constitution because of its historical importance. At the Lahore Session of the Congress held in December 1929, a resolution was passed which declared Poorna Swaraj or Complete Independence to be the objective of the Congress. January 26, 1930 was fixed as the first Independence Day, which was to be celebrated every year. Since then the day was celebrated as Independence Day up to 1947. Later, to maintain its importance January 26 was chosen for enforcement of constitution and was designated as Republic day.

Structured Questions

Question 1

With reference to the making of Indian Constitution explain the following:

(a) Name the plan which proposed to set up the Constituent Assembly. How were the members of the Constituent Assembly elected?

(b) How was the membership of the Constituent Assembly reduced as a result of partition of the country?

(c) How can you say that the Constituent Assembly gave adequate representation to all sections of the Indian society?

Answer

(a) The Cabinet Mission Plan (1946) proposed to set up the Constituent Assembly.

The members of the Constituent Assembly were elected indirectly by the Provincial Legislative Assemblies (Lower House only). Elections to the Provincial Assembly were completed by July 1946. The princely states were represented by the members nominated by the rulers of these States. The Constituent Assembly of undivided India consisted of 389 members (292 elected, 93 nominated by the Princely states, 3 from Chief Commissioner Provinces and one from the British).

(b) The Muslim League boycotted the Constituent Assembly to demand the creation of a separate state called Pakistan. Consequently the members representing the territories which went to Pakistan withdrew from the Constituent Assembly of India. As a result, the membership of the Constituent Assembly of India stood at 299 against the original number of 389 members.

(c) The wide-ranging membership of the Constituent Assembly gave representation to all shades of public opinion. The Cabinet Mission plan had ensured representation to only three categories — the General category, Muslims and Sikhs. The Congress leaders had, however, ensured that other communities like Anglo-Indians, Indian Christians Scheduled Castes and Scheduled tribes got representation.

Question 2

With reference to the Objectives Resolution explain the following:

(a) Who proposed the Resolution? When was the Resolution passed by the Constituent Assembly? Name the Act that gave legal sanctity to the Constituent Assembly.

(b) State any three points of the Objectives Resolution.

(c) List four principles that Babasaheb Ambedkar incorporated in the Constitution.

Answer

(a) The Resolution was proposed by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru on December 13, 1946.

The Resolution was passed by the Constituent Assembly on January 22, 1947.

The Act that gave legal sanctity to the Constituent Assembly was the Indian Independence Act, 1947. This legal sanction enabled the Constituent Assembly to function after India's independence. The Assembly became a sovereign body.

(b) Three points of the Objectives Resolution are :

  1. Free India will be nothing but a 'republic'.
  2. The ideals of social, political and economic democracy would be guaranteed to all people.
  3. The Republic would grant Fundamental Rights to citizens.

(c) The four principles that Babasaheb Ambedkar incorporated in the Constitution are:

  1. Made the Indian Constitution workable, flexible and strong enough to hold the country together both in peace and in war.
  2. Provided special safeguards to the minorities and certain classes, who are socially and educationally backward.
  3. Incorporated the Right to Constitutional Remedies to ensure that the Fundamental Rights of the individuals are not infringed by the Centre or the State governments.
  4. Incorporated Directive Principles to ensure social and economic democracy and welfare of the people of India.
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