Multiple Choice Questions
The word 'Facism' means ............... .
Which of the following was NOT a cause of Fascism in Italy?
- Economic stability
- Class conflicts
- Leadership provided by Mussolini
- Threat of socialism or communism
Mussolini turned which country into a protectorate of Italy?
Who was called the 'Duce' - meaning the 'Leader'?
- Adolf Hitler
- King Victor Emmanull II
- King Victor Emmanull III
Which of the following did not contribute to the rise of Fascism?
- Treaty of Versailles
- Rise of democracy
- Economic crisis
- Fear of Communism
Rise of democracy
Name the Pact signed between the Pope and Mussolini in 1929?
- Treaty of Italy
- Treaty of Lateran
- Treaty of War
- Treaty of Vatican
Treaty of Lateran
Hitler planned to capture power through a march on ............... .
Which of the following is NOT a factor contributing to growth of Nazism in Germany?
- Resurgence of Militant Nationalism
- Economic Crisis
- Charismatic Personality of Hitler
- Strong opposition
"Mein Kamph", written by Adolf Hitler literally means ............... .
- The war
- My struggle
- My leadership
- My Constitution
Which of the following was NOT an aim of the Nazi Movement?
- To extol war
- To advocate the rule by a great leader from a single party
- To disparage nationalism
- To uphold racial supremacy
To disparage nationalism
What was the main objective of Hitler's foreign policy?
- To despise internationalism, peace and democracy
- To use force and brutality
- To establish a Totalitarian state
- To reject the Treaty of Versailles
To despise internationalism, peace and democracy
Who all had to be purged to ensure dominance of the master race?
- Jews, communists and Christians
- Communists, socialists
- Germans, Italians and French
- British, Americans and Indians
Jews, communists and Christians
Which of the following is a negative aspect of Fascism?
- End of Civil liberties
- End of food shortage
- Growth of trade
- Revival of the economy
End of Civil liberties
What was the main focus of the Fascist's economic reforms?
- Promoting worker's unions and trade guilds
- Discouraging rise of capitalists
- Removing unemployment and making the nation self sufficient
- Increasing support to fulfil domestic demands for food and power.
Removing unemployment and making the nation self sufficient
Short Answer Questions
How did the Treaty of Versailles lead to the rise of dictatorship?
Italy joined the Allies in the First World War to gain territories of Turkey and Germany. But by the Treaty of Versailles, she could get only Southern Tyrol and Trentino, and the Coastal Regions of Dalmatia. She could get no part of German and Turkish colonial empire.
Germans looked down upon the Weimar Republic which had signed such a disgraceful treaty. Germany was forced to cede large chunks of her territory and her overseas colonies were divided among the Allies. Germany was forced to pay heavy reparations of 33 billion dollars and total strength of its army was fixed at one lakh. The terms of this treaty were greatly resented by the Germans who eagerly looked for an opportunity to avenge the same. These sentiments were exploited by Hitler.
Hence, the Treaty of Versailles lead to the rise of dictatorship.
How did the failure of the League of Nations lead to the rise of dictatorship?
After the First World War, the League of Nations was established to maintain peace in the world and to prevent wars. But it proved weak and failed to achieve its aims. It failed to check the rise of dictatorships. Had it acted well in time, the ambitious plans of Mussolini and Hitler would not have materialised.
What is meant by 'Fascism'? Why did the Italians feel that they had been deceived by the Treaty of Versailles?
'Fascism' means autocracy or dictatorship where the power of the State is vested in one man only and it is obligatory for all the others to obey his orders.
Italy joined the Allies in the First World War to gain territories of Turkey and Germany. But by the Treaty of Versailles, she could get only Southern Tyrol and Trentino, and the Coastal Regions of Dalmatia. She could get no part of the German and Turkish colonial empire.
How did the economic crisis after the First World War create unrest in Italy?
Italy suffered heavy losses in terms of life and property in the First World War. After the War, many soldiers became unemployed. Trade and commerce were ruined leading to large-scale unemployment. There was a shortage of food grains.
In what way was socialism a cause for the rise of Fascism in Italy?
The Socialists who included the Anarchists, the Communists and the Social Democrats created conditions conducive for the growth of Fascism in Italy. Inspired by the Russian Revolution, the Communists inflamed the atmosphere with revolutionary ideas. People wanted a powerful leadership who could establish peace and prosperity by ending lawlessness and insecurity prevalent in Italy. The industrialists viewed the growing strength of the labour unions with alarm and provided financial support to Fascism.
State two underlying principles of Fascism.
Two underlying principles of Fascism were-
- Fascism was the antithesis of democracy. Fascists believed that democracy was not suitable for the country because it widens the gulf between the poor and the rich.
- Fascism supported one party and one leader. They believed that the country could make progress only under one leader.
What did Mussolini do to solve the problem of unemployment?
A number of measures were undertaken to reduce unemployment. All factories and mills were nationalised to improve the lot of workers. Various syndicates were established to improve relations between the capitalists and the workers. Mussolini started an impressive public works programme which included the building of roads, bridges, canals, railways, schools, hospitals, etc.
Give any two positive results of Fascism in Italy.
Two positive results of Fascism in Italy were-
- A number of measures were undertaken to reduce unemployment.
- All efforts were made to eradicate illiteracy by making elaborate provisions for education.
Why did Germans feel humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles?
Defeat in the First World War and the conditions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles made the Germans feel humiliated and helpless. Germany was forced to cede large chunks of her territory to France, Belgium, Poland and Denmark. Her overseas possessions were divided by the Allies in the War among themselves. Germany was forced to pay heavy reparations to the tune of 33 billion dollars and the total strength of the German army was fixed at one lakh.
Why was the economic burden of Germany greater than that of other countries?
As a result of the harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany had to suffer in agricultural production, colonies, foreign investment, trade contracts, etc. The foreign countries raised tariffs against the German goods. The number of unemployed people increased. The condition of the farmers became miserable. By June 1931, debts on farmers had risen to $300 million.
In what way was the failure of Weimar Republic responsible for the introduction of Nazism?
Germans looked down upon the Weimar Republic which had signed such a disgraceful treaty of Versailles. The Germans could not reconcile with the democratic parliamentary system prevailing in their country. They preferred prestige and glory to liberty and freedom. They felt that only a strong man could restore the past prestige of Germany and check the rising popularity of Communism. When Hitler promised them all glory, they welcomed him with open arms.
How did the spread of Communism lead to the rise of Nazism in Germany?
After the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, the Communist influence in Germany increased considerably. The Communists organised themselves effectively and succeeded in capturing a number of seats in Reichstag. Hitler warned the people that Communists of Germany would become the servants of their Russian masters and would follow the dictates of Communists.
He tried to persuade the people in Germany that Nazism alone could check the growing influence of Communists.
Give any two aims of Nazism.
Two aims of Nazism were:
- To exalt nationalism
- To extol war
Name the book in which Hitler first expressed Nazi principles. Name the country where the Nazi party came to power in 1933. Give one positive and one negative result of Nazism in Germany.
The book in which Hitler first expressed Nazi principles is Mein Kampf.
In 1933, the Nazi party came to power in Germany.
One positive result of Nazism in Germany was that special efforts were made to increase the military force of the country. Military training was made compulsory which again created more employment.
One negative result of Nazism in Germany was that Hitler put an end to civil liberties.
Do you think that the aims of the Fascists and Nazis could have brought lasting peace and prosperity to their countries? Do you agree with those aims? Why?
No, the aims of the Fascists and Nazis couldn't have brought lasting peace and prosperity to their countries.
No, I don't agree with those aims because every human being has the right to live his live freely. Violence and oppression can never foster peace in a country.
With reference to the rise of dictatorship in Europe after the First World War, answer the following questions:
(a) How did class conflicts lead to the rise of dictatorship that emerged in Italy and Germany after the First World War?
(b) How did the decline of democracy help in the rise of dictatorship in Italy and Germany?
(c) What was the reason for the failure of the League of Nations?
(a) Class conflict increased in many countries after the First World War.
- The real issue in most parts of continental Europe was whether control of government and economic systems would continue in the possession of aristocracies or would be in the hands of less privileged majorities.
- The common man had been promised, during the War, that he would be rewarded by greater attention to his economic needs.
- These promises were ignored and the common man was embittered.
(b) Democracy was introduced in Italy for the first time in 1919.
- Elections failed to give a clear majority to a single party.
- As a result, there was complete instability in the country and between 1919 and 1922 six coalition governments were formed in Italy.
- The various political parties had different policies and programmes and there was no continuity in their policies.
- They were unable to deal effectively with the problems of unemployment, strikes and riots which took place during 1921-22.
- This situation was fully exploited by the Fascists under the leadership of Mussolini, who promised the people a strong national government.
- The rise of the Nazi Party in Germany was facilitated by the absence of any strong opposition party.
- As a result, the Nazi Party did not encounter any effective resistance and its popularity achieved great heights.
(c) The failure of the League of Nations can be attributed to the following reasons-
- United States of America was not a member of League of Nations.
- Big nations of the League of Nations, who were the Super Powers in the world, were very self-seeking.
- The League of Nations had no such powers as to get its edicts enforced.
- In the absence of any sovereign power, the League of Nations was unable to take any effective action against the aggressor, and this became the main reason behind the failure of the League of Nations.
- The League of Nations did not have its own army and hence, it could not prove to be effective.
Due to Fascism, Italy made progress in different spheres of life and became a powerful nation. With reference to the results of Fascism in Italy, explain the following:
(a) Reforms introduced in Italy to improve the economic condition of the people.
(b) Aggressive foreign policy under Mussolini.
(c) Negative impact of Fascism in Italy.
(a) Mussolini introduced various reforms to improve the economic condition of the people in Italy.
- He took measures to stall further devaluation of the Italian currency.
- A number of measures were undertaken to reduce unemployment.
- All factories and mills were nationalised to improve the lot of workers.
- Various syndicates were established to improve relations between the capitalists and the workers.
- Mussolini started an impressive public works programme which included the building of roads, bridges, canals, railways, schools, hospitals, etc.
(b) Mussolini used to say, "Italy must expand or perish."
- He regained the Islands of Rhodes, Dodecanese as well as the city of Fiume.
- He turned Albania into a protectorate of Italy.
- He entered into commercial and diplomatic treaties with France and Russia.
- He captured Abyssinia in 1936 and when there was an objection in the League of Nations, Italy left the League of Nations.
- After that, Italy's relations with England and France deteriorated and she was drawn towards Germany.
(c) Besides the positive impacts, there were many negative effects of Fascism in Italy.
- All efforts were made to curb political freedom.
- After gaining power, Mussolini became a dictator and took all the military and civil powers into his own hands.
- All political parties except the Fascists were banned.
- The system of Jury was abolished and special courts were set up where the Fascist civilian and military officers were empowered to decide political cases.
- Press was censored.
- The freedom of speech and organising meetings was also prohibited.
- Mussolini crushed his opponents brutally.
In the post World War I scenario, Italy and Germany experienced the rise of dictatorships. In this context, explain:
(a) Any three circumstances that led to the rise of Fascism in Italy.
(b) Any three domestic policies of Hitler.
(c) How were the foreign policies of Hitler responsible for the outbreak of the Second World War?
(a) Three circumstances that led to the rise of Fascism in Italy were as follows-
- Discontentment after the Treaty of Versailles — Italy joined the Allies in the First World War to gain territories of Turkey and Germany. But she could get no part of the German and Turkish colonial empire.
- Economic Crisis — Italy suffered heavy losses in terms of life and property in the First World War. After the War, many soldiers became unemployed. Trade and commerce were ruined leading to large-scale unemployment. There was a shortage of food grains.
- Political Instability — Democracy was introduced in Italy for the first time in 1919. Elections failed to give a clear majority to a single party. As a result, there was instability in the country and between 1919 and 1922 six coalition governments were formed in Italy. The various political parties had different policies and programmes and there was no continuity in their policies. They were unable to deal effectively with the problems of unemployment, strikes and riots which took place during 1921-22. This situation was fully exploited by the Fascists under the leadership of Mussolini, who promised the people a strong national government.
(b) Three domestic policies of Hitler were as follows-
- Hitler launched the first Five-year plan to have greater production. The economic life of the country was organised with the objectives of removing unemployment and making the nation self-sufficient.
- Special efforts were made to increase the military force of the country. Military training was made compulsory which again created more employment.
- Strict censor was imposed on books, the press and the cinema. All anti-Nazi books and magazines were consigned to fire.
(c) Hitler resorted to the policy of territorial expansion and fortification of Germany.
- He tried to acquire more territories for the surplus German population.
- He tried to expand in South and East of Europe because that region was economically useful for Germany as it possessed huge potential for wheat, oil and coal.
- To attain this objective, Hitler made use of force and rejected all compromises.
- He entered into a non-aggression treaty with Poland for a period of ten years in 1934 for the safety of his eastern frontiers.
- He reclaimed the territory of Saar and Rhineland from France.
- In 1938, he annexed Austria by force. He concluded a non-aggression pact with Russia.
Study the picture and answer the questions that follow:
(a) Identify the leader in the picture. How did he establish a totalitarian state in his country?
(b) State three factors that led to the rise of Nazism.
(c) State four similarities between the ideologies of Nazism and Fascism.
(a) The leader shown in the picture is Adolf Hitler.
Hitler had no faith in the parliamentary system of government. He, therefore, eradicated all those elements which offered opposition to his authority and established a totalitarian state in his country.
- He concentrated all power into his hands, suppressed all opposition and propagated the ideology of Nazism.
- He changed the federal government into a unitary government.
- He, himself became the Governor of Prussia.
- All provincial legislatures were dissolved in 1934 and the sovereign power of the central government was established.
- Various political parties were abolished.
- A ban was imposed on the press, public speeches and writing of articles.
- Even the members of the Nazi party who challenged Hitler's authority were severely dealt with.
- A secret police known as the Gestapo, kept a check on the activities of citizens.
- Those suspected of disloyalty to the State were arrested or executed without trial.
(b) Three factors that led to the rise of Nazism were —
- Humiliating Treaty of Versailles — The conditions imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles made the Germans feel humiliated and helpless. Hitler exploited these sentiments and encouraged the Germans to break the treaty and rebuild the empire of Germany by recapturing lost colonies.
- Economic crisis — The harsh terms of Treaty of Versailles made Germany to suffer in agricultural production, colonies, foreign investment, trade contracts, etc. Foreign countries raised tariffs against German goods. This increased unemployment and made the conditions of farmers miserable. The Nazis exploited the situation by assuring people to follow Nazi ideology to put an end to their economic misery.
- Growing Fear of Communism — After the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, the Communist influence in Germany increased considerably as they succeeded in capturing a number of seats in Reichstag. Hitler warned the people that Communists of Germany would become the servants of their Russian masters and would follow the dictates of Communists. He persuaded the people that Nazism alone could check the growing influence of Communism.
(c) Four similarities between the ideologies of Nazism and Fascism were-
- To have faith in the totalitarian rule.
- To despise democratic political systems.
- To uphold One-Party and one leader.
- To believe in aggressive nationalism and imperialism.
Imagine that you are a student living in Nazi Germany in the 1930 have a pen friend in Italy. While exchanging letters with him/her you realised that he/she is living in similar situation as in your country. Write a reply to him/her stating the similarities in conditions in which you both are living.
Since reading your last letter, I have been thinking about how similar the living conditions are in both of our countries. Like Italy, we are also going through an economic crisis. Unemployment is on the rise and there is a decline in agricultural production and trade. Both of our countries have been hit hard by the Treaty of Versailles creating a widespread discontent among the people.
Here also we fear that Communism is spreading and the country might come under Communist influence like Russia. I am equally concerned like you about the growing hatred for democratic principles and preference for totalitarian system and one party rule. There is a lot of political instability in the country right now.
Hoping that conditions will improve in both of our countries. Please do write back to me detailing the latest developments on your side.
Why do you think that all the dictatorships have an appeal to the masses? Give reasons to support your answer.
All the dictatorships have an appeal to the masses due to the following reasons:
- The leaders have a charismatic personality and they are excellent orators. Both Mussolini and Hitler were charismatic and great orators. Both knew how to exploit public sentiment in their favour through passionate speeches.
- The masses are suffering economically under the democratic government and they are looking for a saviour who can uplift them from their miseries. Dictators portray themselves as a strong authoritarian leader who can solve all the problems of the masses.
- The masses are discontent as their national pride is hurt. So, they start trusting some one who promises to restore the past glory and make the nation great again.