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Term 1 — Chapter 4

Disasters and their Management

Class 8 - Around the World Geography Solutions


Get Set

Question 1

Read the clues and write the names of natural disasters.

  1. What an eruption! ...............
  2. The killer waves ...............
  3. Not a drop to drink ...............
  4. When the earth shakes ...............
  5. Water, water everywhere ...............

Answer

  1. Volcanic eruption
  2. Tsunami
  3. Drought
  4. Earthquake
  5. Flood

Quick Quiz 1

Question 1

Name two types of disasters.

Answer

The two types of disasters are:

  1. Natural disaster
  2. Human-made disaster

Question 2

A (seismograph/Richter scale) measures the intensity of an earthquake.

Answer

Richter scale

Question 3

The occurrence of ............... is forecasted by the Central Water Commission.

Answer

The occurrence of floods is forecasted by the Central Water Commission.

Question 4

Rayalaseema in Andhra Pradesh is a flood-prone area. True or False?

Answer

False

Question 5

What is the cause of tsunami?

Answer

Tsunami is caused by an undersea earthquake or a volcanic eruption.

Quick Quiz 2

Question 1

Define human-made disasters.

Answer

The disasters caused due to deliberate actions of individuals, groups or governments are called human-made disasters.

Question 2

The atomic bomb was dropped at Chernobyl. True or False?

Answer

False
The atomic bombs were dropped at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan.

Question 3

The Bhopal Gas Tragedy is an example of (chemical/biological) disaster.

Answer

Chemical

Question 4

Mention the names of three organizations that the Government of India has set up for disaster management.

Answer

Three organizations that the Government of India has set up for disaster management are:

  1. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
  2. National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)
  3. National Institute of Disaster Management (NDIM)

Question 5

The ............... searches and rescues people in times of disaster.

Answer

The NDRF searches and rescues people in times of disaster.

The underlined word is incorrect. Write the correct word.

Question 1

The epicentre is the place of origin of an earthquake.

Answer

Focus

Question 2

We must develop rainwater harvesting system as a precaution against cyclone.

Answer

Drought

Question 3

The Chernobyl disaster is a biological disaster.

Answer

Nuclear

Question 4

Disaster management aims to enhance the impact of disaster.

Answer

reduce

Question 5

The epicentre of the April 2015 Nepal earthquake was at Pokhara.

Answer

Barpak

Fill in the blanks

Question 1

Puducherry is a ............... (cyclone/drought) prone area.

Answer

Puducherry is a cyclone prone area.

Question 2

In India floods mostly occur between June and ............... (September/November).

Answer

In India floods mostly occur between June and September .

Question 3

The ............... (Columbia/Titanic) sank in the North Atlantic Ocean after it hit an iceberg.

Answer

The Titanic sank in the North Atlantic Ocean after it hit an iceberg.

Question 4

The ............... (NIDM/NDMA) provides fund for disaster mitigation.

Answer

The NIDM provides fund for disaster mitigation.

Question 5

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of ...............(Mexico/Alaska).

Answer

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occured in the Gulf of Mexico.

Give reasons for the following

Question 1

Tsunami develops due to undersea earthquake.

Answer

A tsunami develops when a large mass of water is displaced. When an undersea earthquake occurs it causes large areas of the sea floor to rise or subside. This leads to the occurrence of huge waves. The waves travel at a high speed of about 500 to 1000 kilometers per hour.

Question 2

River Brahmaputra causes flood every year.

Answer

The River Brahmaputra and its tributaries bring large amount of water and silt from its upper course in the mountains. The silt deposits on the river bed and reduces the water-holding capacity of the river. In addition to this, when heavy rainfall occurs during the monsoon, the Brahmaputra river and its tributaries are unable to carry the excess water resulting in floods every year.

Answer these questions

Question 1(a)

Distinguish between a hazard and a disaster.

Answer

Sl
no.
HazardDisaster
1.The destruction caused by nature or human beings is called a hazard.The hazard that causes loss of lives and destruction of properties is called a disaster.
2.It has potential to cause damage to life and property.If the harm is already done, it is termed as disaster.
3.All hazards are not disaster.All disasters are hazards.

Question 1(b)

Mention two precautions that should be taken if an earthquake strikes.

Answer

Two precautions that should be taken if an earthquake strikes are:

  1. Leave your home or school building and move to an open area.
  2. Do not stand near windows, bookcases, mirrors, hanging pots and fans during or immediately after an earthquake.

Question 1(c)

What is the role of the Indian Meteorological Department in disaster management?

Answer

The Indian Meteorological Department studies the development and movement of cyclones, forecast heavy rains and thunderstorms etc. Thus, it helps to warn people, airports, seaports regarding the dangers. This help people as well as government agencies to prepare themselves before the disaster.

Question 2(a)

Name five necessary things that should be kept handy during flood.

Answer

Five necessary things that should be kept handy during flood are:

  1. First-aid kit including medicines of Diarrhoea and snake bite.
  2. A radio
  3. A torch
  4. Match box and candles
  5. Stock of freshwater and dry food

Question 2(b)

What is the main cause of drought?

Answer

Extreme shortage of water due to very less or no rainfall is the main cause of drought.

Question 3(a)

What are the weapons of mass destruction?

Answer

The weapons of mass destruction (WMD) include those articles which can cause nuclear, chemical or biological warfare. Nuclear weapons and misuse of chemicals for destructive purposes are examples of weapons of mass destruction.

Question 3(b)

What is a biological attack?

Answer

A biological attack means the release of germs or other biological substances. Such substances can enter the body through inhalation, cuts in the skin and food, and make one sick.

Question 3(c)

Mention two precautions that should be taken in case of accidental disasters.

Answer

Two precautions that should be taken in case of accidental disasters are:

  1. We should follow the traffic rules to avoid road accidents.
  2. We should inform the police station or fire station immediately after any road, rail or fire accident.

Question 4(a)

Define disaster management.

Answer

The preparedness to handle a disaster before it occurs, the response given during a disaster and the recovery activities undertaken after a disaster so as to prevent or mitigate the impact of a disaster is called disaster management.

Question 4(b)

Mention three works carries out by NDRF in times of disaster.

Answer

Three works carries out by NDRF in times of disaster are:

  1. Evacuate people and animals and shift them to safe shelters before a cyclone strikes.
  2. Search and rescue people.
  3. Remove fallen and uprooted trees to clear roads.

Question 4(c)

Why was NIDM set up?

Answer

NIDM was set up for training and research on disaster risk mitigation and management. It aims to make India disaster free by developing and promoting a culture of prevention and preparedness at all levels.

Question 5(a)

Name the national parks which are affected by the Assam floods.

Answer

The national parks which are affected by Assam floods are:

  1. Kaziranga National Park
  2. Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Nameri National Park

Question 5(b)

What was the cause of Gorhka earthquake?

Answer

Gorkha earthquake was caused due to the sudden release of stress along the fault line between the Indian and the Eurasian tectonic plates.

Question 5(c)

Define oil slick.

Answer

Oil Slick is a thin layer of oil on the surface of water which is formed after an oil spill.

Question 5(d)

How does an oil spill affect the wildlife?

Answer

An oil spill affects the marine birds, mammals and fish. The oil penetrates into the plumage of birds and furs of mammals which restricts their movement in water and reduces their ability to find food or to escape from predators. Besides, the oil is also swallowed by the birds and other marine creatures which affects their digestive system and finally kills them.

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