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Term 2 — Chapter 1

Representation of Geographical Features

Class 8 - Around the World Geography Solutions


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Question 1

What do these conventional signs and symbols refer to in a topo sheet?
Tick (✓) the correct answers.

1.

What do these conventional signs and symbols refer to in a topo sheet? Representation of Geographical Features, Around the World Geography Solutions ICSE Class 8.

anchorage/lighthouse/buoy

2.

What do these conventional signs and symbols refer to in a topo sheet? Representation of Geographical Features, Around the World Geography Solutions ICSE Class 8.

international boundary / forest boundary / tehsil boundary

3.

What do these conventional signs and symbols refer to in a topo sheet? Representation of Geographical Features, Around the World Geography Solutions ICSE Class 8.

bamboo/palmyra/conifer

4.

What do these conventional signs and symbols refer to in a topo sheet? Representation of Geographical Features, Around the World Geography Solutions ICSE Class 8.

unmetalled road / metalled road / telegraph line

5.

What do these conventional signs and symbols refer to in a topo sheet? Representation of Geographical Features, Around the World Geography Solutions ICSE Class 8.

tidal river / dry river / canal

Answer

  1. Lighthouse
  2. Tehsil boundary
  3. Palmyra
  4. Unmetalled Road
  5. Tidal river

Quick Quiz 1

Question 1

Topo sheets show the details of a very large area. True or False.

Answer

False, Topo sheets show the details of a very small area.

Question 2

The 4° x 4° sheets are also called ............... sheets.

Answer

million

Question 3

45 D/10 is an example of (quarter/quadrant) sheet.

Answer

quadrant sheet

Question 4

Define grid square.

Answer

The eastings and the northings intersect to form a network of squares called the arbitrary grid system. Each square in the arbitrary grid system is called the grid square.

Question 5

Why are the grid lines numbered?

Answer

The grid lines are numbered in order to locate places and features on topo sheets.

Quick Quiz 2

Question 1

How much is the contour interval on a topo sheet?

Answer

The contour interval on a topo sheet is 20 metres.

Question 2

The closely spaced contours indicate ............... slope.

Answer

steep

Question 3

Two hills separated by a pass is called a (ridge/saddle).

Answer

saddle

Question 4

Profiles are drawn using contours. True or false?

Answer

True

Question 5

How will you identify a spot height on a topo sheet?

Answer

The spot height is shown by a black dot followed by a number. The number shows the height of the spot in metres.

Quick Quiz 3

Question 1

On the topo sheet, the squares with red outline show (temporary/permanent) settlements.

Answer

Temporary settlements

Question 2

Name the different types of settlement on the basis of their shape.

Answer

The different types of settlement on the basis of their shape are:

  1. Compact
  2. Scattered
  3. Linear

Question 3

............... settlement is found in hilly regions.

Answer

Scattered settlement

Question 4

The drainage patterns are mentioned under land use. True or False?

Answer

False

Question 5

When you interpret a topo sheet, under which head will you write about the major possible occupations in the region?

Answer

The major possible occupations in the region are written under economic activities.

Tick the correct answers

Question 1

How many million sheets are drawn to cover the whole of India?

  1. 16
  2. 36
  3. 50
  4. 75

Answer

36

Question 2

Which of these colours is used to draw contours?

  1. red
  2. blue
  3. green
  4. brown

Answer

brown

Question 3

Which of these is not a settlement pattern?

  1. dendritic
  2. linear
  3. compact
  4. scattered

Answer

dendritic

Question 4

Which of these is not included in the marginal information about topo sheets?

  1. contour interval
  2. number of topo sheet
  3. settlements
  4. scale

Answer

settlements

Question 5

Parts of which of these states is shown in the topo sheet 45 D/10

  1. Maharashtra
  2. Gujarat
  3. Punjab
  4. Jharkhand

Answer

Gujarat

Read clues & write names

Question 1

The grid lines that run from east to west: ...............

Answer

Northings

Question 2

The V-shaped contours show this relief feature: ...............

Answer

Valley

Question 3

The side view of the cut of a relief feature:...............

Answer

Profile or Cross Section

Question 4

This type of settlement is found along a railway track: ...............

Answer

Linear Settlements

Question 5

The main stream that flows through Sirohi and Banas Kantha districts and shown on topo sheet 45 D/10 : ...............

Answer

Sipu Nadi

Give reasons for the following

Question 1

The quarter sheets are also called 1° x 1° sheets.

Answer

The extent of each quarter sheet is 1° of latitude and 1° of longitude. Thus, the quarter sheets are also called 1° x 1° sheets or degree sheets.

Question 2

The distance between two successive contours indicate the slope of the land.

Answer

Contours are the lines, drawn on the map, which join the places that have same height above the mean sea level. The contours are marked with a number, known as contour value, which shows the height of the land in metres. Thus the difference between two successive contours (contour interval) depicts the difference in heights of two points on land. Thus, contour interval being same, widely spaced contours will depict a gentle slope while closely-spaced contours will depict a steep slope.

Answer the following questions

Question 1(a)

What are topo sheets?

Answer

The large-scale maps, prepared by the Survey of India, based on actual field surveys are called the topographical maps or topo sheets.

Question 1(b)

Name the groups into which the topo sheets are categorized.

Answer

The topo sheets are categorized into three main groups:

  1. Million sheets
  2. Quarter sheets
  3. Quadrant sheets

Question 1(c)

What are the differences between quarter and quadrant sheets?

Answer

Sl.
No.
Quarter sheetsQuadrant sheets
1.A million sheet is divided into 16 equal parts and each one is called Quarter sheet.Quarter sheet is further sub-divided into 16 equal parts and each one is called Quadrant sheets.
2.The extent of each quarter sheet is 1° of latitude and 1° of longitude.The extent of each quadrant sheet is 1/4° of latitude and 1/4° of longitude.
3.These are marked as A, B, C, D....P and are written as 45A, 45B, 45C.....45P.These are numbered from 1 to 16 and are written as 45 A/1, 45 A/2...... 45 A/16.
4.The scale of the sheet is 1 cm : 2.5 km.The scale of the sheet is 2 cm : 1 km.

Question 2(a)

Distinguish between grid and arbitrary grid system.

Answer

Sl.
No.
Grid SystemArbitrary Grid System
1.The network of latitudes and longitudes on maps is called Grid.The grid formed by a set of vertical and horizontal lines drawn in red on a topo sheet is called arbitrary grid system.
2.Grid System is drawn on Maps.Arbitrary Grid System is drawn on Topographical Maps.
3.The grid lines are called latitudes and longitudes.The grid lines are called Northings and Eastings.
4.The grid lines are represented in degrees.The grid lines are represented in two digits such as 00, 01, 02, ... 99.

Question 2(b)

Mention three features of arbitrary grid system.

Answer

Three features of arbitrary grid system are:

  1. The south-west corner or the bottom-left corner of topo sheet is always taken as the starting point or the point of reference for the grid.
  2. The vertical grid lines, drawn from north to south, are called the eastings. The eastings are so called because they lie towards the east of the south-west corner.
  3. The horizontal grid lines, drawn from east to west, are called the northings. The northings are so called because they lie towards the north of the south-west corner.

Question 3(a)

Define contour and contour interval.

Answer

Contour — Contours are lines, drawn on a map, which join the places that have the same height above the mean sea level.

Contour Interval —The difference between the values of any two successive contours is known as the contour interval (vertical interval).

Question 3(b)

Write two characteristics of contours.

Answer

Two characteristics of contours are:

  1. They are shown in brown.
  2. They are marked with a number called the contour value. It shows the height of the land, in metres, above the mean sea level.

Question 3(c)

How will you identify steep slope, ridge and bench mark on a topo sheet.

Answer

Steep slope — It is shown by closely-spaced contours.

Ridge — It is shown by elliptical contours.

Bench Mark — It is shown by a black dot followed by BM and a number.

Question 4(a)

What are the factors suitable for the growth and development of a settlement?

Answer

The factors suitable for the growth and development of a settlement are:

  1. Fertile river valleys and plains
  2. Source of water
  3. Presence of market or industrial sites
  4. Connectivity (presence of roads and railways)

Question 4(b)

Give two examples of areas where compact settlements are found.

Answer

Two examples of areas where compact settlements are found are:

  1. Fertile Area
  2. Industrial area

Question 5(a)

Mention two information that you will include under drainage.

Answer

The two information that are included under drainage are:

  1. Drainage patterns
  2. Prominent water bodies

Question 5(b)

Which are the two roads that connect Abu city?

Answer

The two roads that connect Abu city are:

  1. Abu road (from the south-east)
  2. Oriya road (from north-east)
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