Answer the following questions
Who founded the Home Rule League? What was its main objective.
The Home Rule League was founded by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant.
The main objectives of Home Rule League were:
- To attain self-government within the British empire by constitutional means.
- The country should have a government by councils, whose members would be elected by the people.
- The council would pass the country's budget and the ministers would be made responsible to the legislature.
What was the Lucknow Pact? State two of its effects on the national movement.
In 1916, both the Congress and the Muslim League held their sessions at Lucknow. The Congress and the Muslim League agreed to a joint scheme of political reforms, known as the Lucknow Pact.
The two effects of Lucknow Pact were:
- The Congress and Muslims League came together compromising in some areas for the common good. The Congress compromised on its secular character and the Muslim League accepted the principles of election and the majority rule.
- The two wings of Congress — the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists united, further strengthening the Congress.
What was the issue that led Mahatma Gandhi to start Ahmedabad Satyagraha?
Gandhiji led the mill-workers of Ahmedabad in a strike against the mill-owners who had refused to pay them higher wages. He undertook a fast in support of the workers. Afraid of the consequences, the mill-owners agreed on the fourth day of Gandhiji's fast to give a 35% wage increase.
State the three causes that led to the Non-Cooperation Movement.
The three causes that led to the Non-Cooperation Movement were:
- The Rowlatt Act — After the First World War, the British government passed the Rowlatt Act authorising the arrest and imprisonment of anyone without trial. It also banned Indians from keeping any type of weapon. Gandhiji appealed to the Viceroy but his appeal was ignorned. This shocked the Indians who were expecting self-governance.
- Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy — On April 13, 1919, General Dyer ordered his troops to open fire without warning on the unarmed crowd gathered at Jallianwala Bagh protesting peacefully against the arrest of their leaders. About one thousand innocent people were killed and several thousand wounded in the firing.
- The Khilafat Movement — The Sultan of Turkey was deprived of all authority after Turkey's defeat in the First World War. He was the Caliph and the religious head of a large section of Muslims. To restore his position, the Khilafat Movement began under the leadership of the Ali Brothers — Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi combined the Khilafat issue with the Non-Cooperation Movement?
Gandhiji saw in the Khilafat movement an opportunity for uniting Hindus and Muslims. Mahatma Gandhi was elected as President of the All-India Khilafat Conference in November 1919. He advised the Khilafat Committee to adopt a policy of Non-cooperation with the Government.
Why did Gandhiji withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?
A procession of about 3000 peasants marched to the police station at Chauri Chaura village in Uttar Pradesh on February 5,1922 to protest against the police officer who had beaten some volunteers picketing a liquor shop. The police fired at the peasants. In retaliation, they set the nearby police station on fire, killing 22 policemen. Gandhiji was shocked by the incident and he decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement on February 12, 1922.
What was the impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement on the freedom struggle?
Following are the impacts of the Non-Cooperation Movement on the freedom struggle:
- The National Movement became a mass movement.
- It instilled new confidence among the people.
- It transformed Congress from a deliberative assembly into a moral fighting force.
- It fostered Hindu-Muslim unity by merging the Khilafat Movement with this movement.
- It shattered the myth that the British rule was for the betterment of the Indians.
What was the Dandi March? Why did Gandhiji organised the Dandi March?
Dandi March was a March started by Gandhiji from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, to break the Salt Law.
Mahatma Gandhi gave the call for a civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. Before starting the movement, Gandhiji served on the British government a 'Eleven point Ultimatum'. After waiting in vain for the government response to his ultimatum, Gandhiji started the movement with his famous Dandi March (March 12 to April 6). He broke the Salt Law by picking up salt left by the sea waves. He selected the Salt Law because the salt tax affected all sections of the society.
Why were the Indians against the Simon Commission?
The Simon Commission was appointed to investigate the need for further constitutional reforms. The Commission was composed of seven British members of Parliament. It had no Indian member. This was seen as a violation of the principle of self-determination and a deliberate insult to the respect of the Indians. So the Congress, decided to boycott it and were supported by the Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha.
What Slogan did Gandhiji give during the Quit India Movement? What was the impact of the Quit India Movement?
The Slogan that Gandhiji gave during the Quit India Movement was "To Do or Die".
The impact of the Quit India Movement was:
- It demonstrated the depth of the nationalist feeling in India and the capacity of Indians for struggle and sacrifice.
- It made it clear that the British would no longer find it possible to rule India against the wishes of its people.
- People of all sections of society participated in this movement.
Who formed the Indian National Army? What were its objectives?
The Indian National Army was formed by Mohan Singh, an Indian officer in British army.
Following were the objectives of the INA:
- To organise an armed revolution and to fight the British army with modern arms.
- Since it was not possible for the Indians to organise an armed revolution from their homeland, this task must be assigned to the Indians living abroad, particularly on Indians living in East Asia.
Name the two slogans given by Subhas Chandra Bose.
The two slogans given by Subhas Chandra Bose were:
- Delhi Chalo (March to Delhi)
- Jai Hind (victory to India).
What was the Cabinet Mission? State any three of its proposals.
The Cabinet Mission included Pethic Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexender. The objective of the Cabinet Mission was to help India achieve her independence and to set up a Constituent Assembly to prepare a Constitution for India.
Proposals of the Cabinet Mission Plan were:
- There will be a federal union of the British Provinces and the Princely States.
- The Union Government would control Defence, Foreign Affairs and Communications. The Provinces would enjoy full autonomy for all subjects other than the Union Subjects.
- The British Provinces would be divided into three groups — Group A, Group B and Group C on the basis of religion.
Who was Lord Mountbatten? State two proposals made by the Mountbatten plan
Lord Mountbatten was the new viceroy and Governor General, who came to India in March 1947. He realised that the Cabinet Mission plan was unworkable and that the partition of India was inevitable. He, therefore, sought to effect the transfer of power without any delay. The plan he proposed was called the 'Mountbatten Plan'.
The proposals made by the 'Mountbatten Plan' were:
- India was to be partitioned and two independent and Sovereign States namely India and Pakistan were to be formed on August 15, 1947.
- The Plan provided for the partition of Punjab and Bengal. The Princely States were given the choice of joining either of the two new States — India or Pakistan.
What was the impact of the Indian Independence Act of 1947?
The impact of the Indian Independence Act of 1947 was:
- Two New Dominions — India was partitioned and two independent Dominions — India and Pakistan — were created on August 15, 1947.
- Provisions of Partition — Both Bengal and Punjab were divided into two parts. North West Frontier Province as well as Sylhet district (Muslim majority area) joined west and east Pakistan respectively.
- Governor-General for Each Dominion — A Governor-General for Each Dominion was appointed by the British King (on the advice of the Cabinet of the concerned Dominion) till the framing of the Constitutions.
- Constituent Assemblies to serve as Central Legislatures — The Constituent Assemblies of both dominions were to act as the Central Legislature.
- End of Jurisdiction of the British Parliament — The legislative authority of the British Parliament came to an end from August 15, 1947.
- Princely States — They were left with the Choice to join either Pakistan or India or stay independent.
Study the picture and answer the following questions:
(a) Identify the monument in the picture. Where is it located?
(b) State the incident that occurred at the place given in the picture.
(c) What was the impact of the incident on the National Movement?
(a) The monument in the picture is Jallianwala Bagh Memorial. It is located at Amritsar (Punjab).
(b) The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy occurred here when General Dyer and his troops opened fire on an unarmed peaceful gathering at here.
(c) This incident increased the discontentment and anger among Indians against the British rule. This incident finally became one of the causes of Non-Cooperation Movement.