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Chapter 19

Preventive Measures

Class 9 - Total Geography Morning Star


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

State two negative effects of vehicular emissions.

Answer

Two negative effects of vehicular emissions are-

  1. Global climate change
  2. Air pollution and its negative health repercussions

Question 2

Name any two gases emitted by vehicular emissions.

Answer

Two gases emitted by vehicular emissions are-

  1. Nitrogen oxide
  2. Carbon monoxide

Question 3

What is meant by carpooling?

Answer

Carpooling refers to the sharing of car journeys by persons travelling on the same route.

Question 4

Name any three modes of public transport used in India.

Answer

Three modes of public transport used in India are-

  1. City buses
  2. Passenger trains
  3. Metro rail

Question 5

What is a 'No Smoking Zone'?

Answer

'No Smoking Zone' is a area where people are restricted to smoke.

Under the Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules 2008, smoking in public places was prohibited. A person caught smoking in public places or 'No Smoking Zone' has to pay a fine.

Question 6

What are Fossil Fuels? Name any two fossil fuels.

Answer

Fossil fuels refer to buried, combustible deposits of organic materials, formed from decayed plants and animals that have been converted to crude oil, coal, and natural gas by exposure to heat and pressure in the earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years.

Two fossil fuels are coal and petroleum.

Question 7

State why should we use fossil fuels judiciously.

Answer

We should use fossil fuels judiciously because these resources are non-renewable and take millions of years to form. These resources also cause pollution and changes in the climate caused by Global warming.

Question 8

State any three measures to save energy.

Answer

Three measures to save energy are-

  1. Use extra blankets and sweaters instead of using room heaters. Likewise, in summer, dress in light, cotton clothes to save on air conditioning costs and energy.
  2. Use a low flow showerhead, to reduce water consumption and energy usage to heat the water.
  3. Turn off equipment and lights at night and unplug appliances when they are not in use.

Question 9

What is Organic Farming?

Answer

Organic farming is a holistic system of farming, which is primarily aimed at cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way, as to keep the soil alive and in good health by use of organic wastes and other biological materials along with the beneficial microbes to release nutrients to crops for increased sustainable production in an eco-friendly pollution free environment.

Structured Questions

Question 1(a)

Explain how are vehicles a source of air pollution.

Answer

Vehicles cause air pollution in the following ways-

  1. Vehicles account for most of the carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and a large share of the hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and particulates found in the atmosphere in major urban areas.
  2. Nitrogen oxide is formed when nitrogen in the fuel or nitrogen of air heats to temperatures above 1200°F in the presence of oxygen. This reaction occurs in most car engines today.
  3. Nitrogen oxides combine with water leading to a component of atmospheric acidification, specially nitric acid. This leads to acid rain.
  4. Most big cities of India are affected by air pollution caused by high levels of total suspended particulates, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. It is exhaust pollution from vehicle emissions.

Question 1(b)

State any two advantages of carpooling.

Answer

Two advantages of carpooling are-

  1. It reduces air pollution by reducing the number of vehicles on the road and thereby, cutting down the vehicular emissions.
  2. It helps to save money in buying fuel and maintenance cost of cars.

Question 1(c)

Why do we need to have an efficient public transport?

Answer

In recent years, there has been an increasing trend for private vehicles. This has resulted in far more vehicles on the road leading to more vehicle emissions and thus more pollution.

If we have an efficient public transport, then people can be convinced to use the public transport instead of private vehicles. This, in turn, will contribute to a healthier environment by improving air quality and reducing oil consumption.

Question 1(d)

Who are passive smokers? How does smoking harm passive smokers?

Answer

Passive smokers are those who do not smoke themselves, but unavoidably breath in second-hand tobacco smoke exhaled by the smokers at public places.

Smoking harms passive smokers as they have an increased chance of many health problems such as lung cancer, asthma, bronchitis and sudden infant death syndrome in children.

Question 2(a)

Name any two legal provisions meant to deter smoking.

Answer

Two legal provisions meant to deter smoking are-

  1. A mandatory specific statutory health warning on cigarette packs was introduced in 1975.
  2. Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules 2008, which prohibits smoking in public places and creating 'No Smoking Zone' in public places.

Question 2(b)

State any two advantages of having a 'No Smoking Zone'.

Answer

Two advantages of having a 'No Smoking Zone' are-

  1. It reduces the possibility of second-hand tobacco smoke being inhaled by non-smokers.
  2. It reduces health care costs by reducing the chances of diseases caused by smoking.

Question 2(c)

Why do we need to reduce our dependency on fossil fuels?

Answer

We need to reduce our dependency on fossil fuels because of the following reasons-

  1. They are non-renewable and take a long time to form.
  2. They cause pollution.

Question 2(d)

Describe the measures an individual can take to reduce consumption of energy and to create a cleaner environment.

Answer

The measures which an individual can take to reduce consumption of energy and to create a cleaner environment are:

  1. Use extra blankets and sweaters instead of using room heaters. Likewise, in summer, dress in light, cotton clothes to save on air conditioning costs and energy.
  2. Use a low flow showerhead, to reduce water consumption and energy usage to heat the water.
  3. Turn off equipment and lights at night and unplug appliances when they are not in use.
  4. Make sure that the houses are well insulated and if heated or cooled, windows or doors are not left open. Raise shades on winter days, lower them in summer. Seal all leaks. Block windows and doors with weather strip tape and install blinds to reduce outside heat transfer.
  5. Use products and equipments with Energy Star label. This reduces energy bill by 30% and electric lighting charges by 40% while cutting pollution.
  6. Replace light fixtures with energy conserving CFL bulbs and tubes which help save 75% of the energy used with incandescent bulbs. CFLs help save money, use less energy, reduce light bulb changes, and lower greenhouse gas emissions. LED lighting is more efficient, durable, versatile and long lasting.
  7. Check furnaces, air conditioners and heat pump filters regularly. Cleaning the heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment, make these last longer, avoid costly down time and improve indoor air quality.
  8. Paint your exterior and interior walls in a light colour so more light is reflected. Paint the edges of the window in white so more light is reflected inside. During the day, open blinds to bring in natural light instead of turning on the lights.
  9. By double siding on copiers, reusing single sided paper, using electronic mail, an organisation can save a significant amount of energy and natural resources.
  10. Use public transport or car pool. This helps to save energy costs and extends the life of a vehicle.

Question 3(a)

Why is 'Organic Farming' so called?

Answer

'Organic Farming' is so called because it is aimed at cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way, as to keep the soil alive and in good health by use of organic wastes and other biological materials along with beneficial microbes to release nutrients to crops for increased sustainable production in an eco-friendly pollution free environment.

It excludes the use of synthetic inputs such as fertilisers, pesticides, hormones and feed additives and rely upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off farm organic waste and biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection.

Question 3(b)

State any two principles of Organic Farming.

Answer

Two principles of Organic Farming are-

  1. Organic farming should sustain and enhance the health of soil, plants, animals and humans as one and indivisible.
  2. Organic farming should be based on living ecological systems and cycles, work with them, emulate them and help sustain them.

Question 3(c)

What are the main characteristics of Organic Farming?

Answer

The main characteristics of Organic Farming are-

  1. Protecting the long term fertility of the soil by maintaining organic matter levels, and creating optimised conditions for biological activity within the soil.
  2. Providing crop nutrients indirectly using relatively insoluble nutrient sources which are made available to the plant by action of soil micro-organisms.
  3. Maintaining nitrogen self-sufficiency through the use of legumes and biological nitrogen fixation, as well as effective recycling of organic materials including crop residues and livestock manures.
  4. Preventing weeds, diseases and pests by relying primarily on crop rotations, natural predators, diversity, organic manuring, resistant varieties and limited thermal, biological and chemical intervention.
  5. Providing attentive care and management of livestock, paying full regard to their evolutionary adaptations, behavioural needs and animal welfare issues with respect to nutrition, housing, health, breeding and rearing.
  6. Careful attention to the impact of the farming system on the wider environment and the conservation of wildlife and natural habitats.

Question 3(d)

State why is Organic Farming gaining popularity in recent times.

Answer

Organic farming is gaining popularity in recent times because people have become aware of their benefits. They contain no chemical pesticides and fertilizers and are grown naturally with manure or compost and only natural pesticides and insecticides are used.

Children are more susceptible than adults to diseases caused by chemical pesticide residues in food and so parents prefer to give them organic foods.

Another advantage is that organic foods do not contain growth hormones or antibiotic residues. Animals are often given growth hormones and antibiotics in animal feeds which are directly passed into animal foods like meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products and from foods to the consumers. In organic farming these practices are banned and animals feed outside in natural surroundings.

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