............... is a hot and dry local wind that blow in north India during pre-monsoon period.
- Western Disturbance
- Kal Baisakhi
- Cherry Blossom
Gully erosion is common in the:
- Chambal basin
- Ganga basin
- Hilly region
............... and ............... crops are associated with laterite soil.
- Wheat and rice
- Sugarcane and rice
- Maize and Bajra
- Tea and Coffee
Tea and Coffee
Which are the most widespread forests of India?
- Tropical Rain Forests
- Tropical Thorn Forest
- Tropical Deciduous Forests
- Littoral Forests
Tropical Deciduous Forests
............... is the oldest coalfield of India.
Cultivation of crops and raising of animals is a feature of ............... .
- Intensive farming
- Plantation farming
- Mixed farming
- Commercial farming
............... industries are also known as household industry.
- Basic Industry
- Co-operative Industry
- Cottage Industry
- Basic Industry
Rourkela Steel Plant was built with the cooperation of ............... .
............... transport supplements the other modes of transport.
Cheapest method of disposal of waste:
(a) Name the type of climate experienced by India.
(b) Mention any two factors responsible for it.
(a) India experiences a tropical monsoon type of climate.
(b) Two factors responsible for tropical monsoon type of climate in India are -
- The Himalayas
- Varied Relief
With the help of a suitable example explain how relief features affect the rainfall of a place.
Relief plays an important role in determining the rainfall of a place. Let us consider some examples,
- The Western Ghats receive heavy rainfall on the western side because they stand in the way of South West Monsoon winds which come from the Arabian Sea. On the other hand, the Deccan Plateau gets less rainfall as it lies in the rainshadow area of the Western Ghats.
- In Rajasthan, the Aravali Range is parallel to the direction of the South West Monsoon winds. So it is unable to stop the moisture laden winds. This makes Rajasthan a dry area.
- The southern hills of Assam get heavy rainfall but the northern ones do not. This is because the southern hills force the moisture laden winds to shed their moisture before they proceed northwards.
Give a geographical reason for each of the following:
(a) Annual range of temperature is higher in Delhi than Mumbai.
(b) Mango showers are beneficial local winds.
(c) The North East monsoons bring almost no rain to most parts of India.
(d) Study the climatic data and answer the following questions:
(i) Calculate the annual range of temperature.
(ii) What is the total rainfall during the monsoon season?
(iii) On which coast is the station located? Give a reason for your answer.
(a) Delhi has a higher annual range of temperature than Mumbai because Delhi is situated in the northern part of India, away from the sea. Hence, it experiences continental type of climate, too hot in summer and too cold in winter. Mumbai, on the other hand, is situated near the sea so it has a moderate type of climate, neither too hot nor too cold.
(b) Mango showers are the pre-monsoon showers in the Indian states of Karnataka, Kerala, Konkan and Goa that help in the ripening of mangoes. These showers are also important for tea and coffee plants. Hence they are beneficial for crops.
(c) The North East monsoons bring almost no rain to most parts of India because these winds blow from land to sea. Thus, they are dry winds and have no moisture to cause rainfall. When these winds pass over the Bay of Bengal, they pick up some moisture and cause some rainfall on the Coromandel Coast.
(d) Study of climatic data:
(a) Annual range of temperature:
Maximum Temperature = 30.4°C (In July)
Minimum Temperature = 23.8°C (In January)
Annual range of temperature = Maximum Temperature - Minimum Temperature = 30.4°C - 23.8°C = 6.6°C
∴ Annual range of temperature = 6.6°C
(b) According to the given data, the monsoon season starts from June and ends in October.
Total rainfall = 45.3 + 46.5 + 45.4 + 43.3 + 20.1 = 200.6 cm
(c) The station is located on the west coast of India as it receives heavy rainfall in the months of June, July and August. During these months, South West Monsoon winds cause heavy rainfall on the west coast of India.
Differentiate between alluvial and laterite soil.
|It is formed by the deposition of sediments by rivers.
|It is formed due to leaching in areas of heavy rain.
|Its colour varies from light grey to deep black.
|It is red in colour.
|It is a fertile soil as it is rich in minerals, especially iron, magnesia, alumina, potash and lime but poor in phosphorous, nitrogen and organic matter.
|It is not fertile. It is rich in iron oxide and potash and poor in lime and magnesium and nitrogen.
|It is coarse and dry in the upper reaches of the river and gets finer and moist as the river flows down.
|It is of a coarse texture, soft and friable.
|It is suitable for cultivation of rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, tobacco, gram and oilseeds.
|It suits crops like tapioca, cashewnuts, tea, coffee, etc.
Name the following:
(a) This soil is sticky when wet and cracks when dry.
(b) This soil is mainly used for making bricks.
(c) This soil is classified into khadar and bhangar.
(d) When heavy rainfall washes away the topmost layer of the soil.
(a) Black soil
(b) Laterite soil
(c) Alluvial soil
(d) Soil erosion
Give geographical reasons for the following:
(a) Black soil is a residual soil.
(b) Red soils are generally infertile.
(c) Alluvial soil differs in texture.
(a) Black soil is a residual soil as it is formed at the place of its origin over the underlying rocks. It is formed by the denudation of volcanic rocks.
(b) Red soils are infertile due to low nutrient content, poor water-holding capacity, high acidity, and susceptibility to erosion.
(c) Alluvial soils differs in texture as in the upper reaches of the river valleys, the soil is dry, coarse, porous and sandy. Soil particles are large and non-uniform but as we move further down a river valley, the soil particles become smaller and more uniform. They are more compact and more moist.
What is Soil Conservation? Mention any two measures taken to conserve soil.
Soil conservation means prevention of soil loss from erosion or prevention of reduced fertility of soil caused by over-use, acidification, salinisation or other types of soil contamination.
Two measures taken to conserve soil are:
- Terrace farming — Terraces act as bunds and prevent soil erosion by running water.
- Contour Ploughing — Ploughing along contours on a slope prevents soil erosion by running water.
Mention any two characteristics of Tropical Evergreen forests.
Two characteristics of Tropical Evergreen forests are:
- Since this region remains warm and wet throughout the year, it has a luxuriant vegetation of all kinds - trees, shrubs and creepers, which give it a multi-layered structure.
- The carpet layer of herbs and grasses cannot grow because of the dense canopy of trees which do not allow enough sunlight to reach the ground.
Name the forest which is found in the delta of the river Ganga. Name two trees which are found here.
Littoral or Tidal forests are found in the delta of the river Ganga.
Palms and sundari trees are found in these forests.
Give geographical reasons for the following:
(a) Xerophytic plants have long roots.
(b) Forests prevent floods.
(c) Tropical deciduous forests are commercially most exploited.
(a) Xerophytic plants have long roots because it enables the plants to absorb water from great depths. It is an adaptation of xerophytic plants to survive in desert area.
(b) Forests prevent floods as the dense vegetation of forests acts as a natural barrier, intercepting and slowing down rainfall. Trees and plants absorb and store water, reducing runoff and preventing excessive water from entering rivers or streams, thus mitigating flood risks.
(c) Tropical deciduous forests are commercially most exploited because besides providing valuable timber, they provide various other valuable products, like sandalwood. Moreover, they are less dense which makes transport between these forests and markets easier and economical.
Give three reasons why we must conserve our forests.
We must conserve our forests because of the following reasons:
- Moderators of Climate — Forests play an effective role in controlling humidity, temperature and precipitation.
- Carbon Cycle — Forests absorb atmospheric Carbon dioxide and help in maintaining the purity of air and controlling atmospheric pollution.
- Water table — Forests help in water percolation and thereby maintain underground water table.
Mention two conditions necessary for the construction of wells.
Two conditions necessary for the construction of wells are:
- Availability of groundwater is essential.
- The depth of the water table should not exceed 15 m.
(a) Surface water
(b) Ground water
(a) Surface water forms streams, lakes, rivers and ponds flowing on land. It can be used directly without pumping.
(b) The water which seeps through the cracks and crevices under the surface of the land is known as ground water. It needs to be pumped out of the ground before it can be used.
Mention one advantage of canals and two disadvantages of tanks.
Advantage of Canal — The rainfall deficiency in some areas is made up by canals taken out from the perennial rivers.
Two disadvantages of tanks —
- When the monsoons fail these tanks go dry and therefore, are not dependable source of irrigation.
- Tanks occupy a large fertile area which otherwise could have been utilised for growing crops.
Mention three ways by which you as an individual can reuse and conserve water.
Three ways by which water can be reused and conserved are:
- We can collect rainwater using rainwater harvesting and use the water for various purposes.
- Water used for washing vegetables and fruits can be further used to water the plants.
- The reject water coming from the water filter or air conditioner outlets can be used for washing or cleaning purposes.
Mention one advantage and one disadvantage of coal found in India.
Advantage — India ranks third in the world in coal production that makes coal the cheapest fossil fuel available in India owing to its availability, easy transport and easy storage.
Disadvantage — Calorific value of coal found in India is low.
Name two states where copper is found in India. Mention one use of it.
Copper is found in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
Copper is used in shipbuilding industry.
Mention two advantages of using natural gas over petroleum. Name an area where natural gas is found.
Two advantages of using natural gas over petroleum are:
- Natural gas is an eco-friendly fuel.
- It is a cleaner, cheaper fuel than diesel or gasoline.
Natural gas is found in Mumbai High in Maharashtra.
What are the advantages of using bio gas?
The advantages of using bio gas are:
- Biogas is clean, non-polluting and cheap.
- There is direct supply of gas from the plant. Therefore, there is no storage problem.
- The sludge left behind is a rich fertiliser containing bacterial biomass.
Mention any two problems faced by Indian farmers.
Two problems faced by Indian farmers are:
- Fragmented Land Holdings — Land holdings in India are often small and fragmented, which makes it challenging for farmers to adopt modern farming techniques and achieve economies of scale.
- Dependence on Monsoons — Agriculture in India heavily relies on monsoon rains for irrigation. Inadequate or irregular rainfall can lead to droughts, crop failure, and financial distress for farmers.
Differentiate between intensive and extensive farming.
|Extensive farming is done on larger area of land.
|Intensive farming is done on smaller land holdings.
|Land may be left fallow for a year or two to enable it to regain its fertility.
|Land is not left fallow and more than one crop are taken in an year.
|Extensive farming is followed in area were more land is available and population is less.
|Intensive farming is done in densely populated areas.
|Less labour is employed.
|More domestic labour is used.
With reference to rice cultivation answer the following:
(a) Name a state that produces the largest quantity of rice.
(b) Mention any two geographical conditions necessary for its growth.
(c) Which is the best method for its cultivation?
(a) West Bengal.
(b) Two geographical conditions necessary for cultivation of rice are:
- Rice grows best in warm and humid areas. The critical mean temperature for flowering and fertilisation ranges from 16°C to 20°C whereas during ripening, the range is from 18°C to 32°C.
- Rice requires good rainfall in the range of 150 to 300 cm.
(c) Japanese method.
(a) Mention two reasons why sugarcane cultivation is gaining importance in Peninsular India.
(b) State one problem of sugarcane growers of Uttar Pradesh.
(a) Two reasons why sugarcane cultivation is gaining importance in Peninsular India are:
- Sugarcane has a higher yield per hectare and a longer harvesting season in the south.
- Cultivation of sugarcane yields better quality of the crop in south owing to the favourable maritime climate free from the effects of summer loo and winter frost, sufficient irrigation and new farming techniques.
(b) One problem of sugarcane growers of Uttar Pradesh is that the farms are far from the mills and a delay of more than 24 hours between harvesting and crushing reduces the sugar content.
Explain the terms:
(a) Ancillary Industry
(b) Public Sector Industry
(a) Ancillary Industries manufacture components, tools, sub-assemblies intermediates and machines required by big industries like heavy electrical industry, aircraft industry, locomotives, buses, etc. For example, automobile ancillary industries provide supporting equipment like tyres, batteries, brakes, headlights, mirrors, etc.
(b) Public Sector Industries are owned and managed either by the Central Government or the State Government. They include public utility industries like railways, post and telegraph, oil refineries, heavy engineering industries, defence establishments, etc. For example, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL), Indian Oil Corporation (IOC), Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), etc.
Mention two problems faced by the cotton textile industries.
Two problems faced by the cotton textile industries are:
- Shortage of Raw Material — There is a shortage of raw material, particularly of long staple cotton.
- Shortage of Power — The mills are facing acute shortage of power. This leads to loss of man hours, low productivity and loss in the mills.
From where Tata Steel gets its supply of coal, iron ore and water supply from?
Tata Steel plant obtains its requirements of iron ore from Gurumahisani mines in Mayurbhanj district of Odisha and from the Noamundi mines in Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.
Coal is obtained from the Jharia and Bokaro coalfields and the two rivers Kharkai and Subarnarekha supply a continuous stream of water for cooling purposes.
What is the significance of the Electronics industry for education, entertainment and research?
The significance of the Electronics industry in the fields of education, entertainment and research is as follows:
Education — The electronics industry provides tools and devices like computers, tablets, and interactive displays which enhance learning experiences, facilitate access to educational resources and enable remote learning opportunities.
Entertainment — Electronics have revolutionized the entertainment industry by enabling immersive gaming experiences, high-quality audiovisual systems, and streaming platforms. Devices like smartphones, smart TVs, and virtual reality headsets have transformed the way we consume and engage with entertainment content.
Research — Electronics industry provides advanced equipment and tools for data collection, analysis, and experimentation. From scientific instruments and laboratory devices to sophisticated imaging systems, electronics support various research disciplines and contribute to advancements in fields like medicine, physics, and engineering.
What is the Golden Quadrilateral? Mention two economic benefits of it.
The Golden Quadrilateral is the largest express highway project in India. It connects India's four largest metropolises: Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai and thus, forms a quadrilateral of sorts. Bengaluru, Pune, Ahmedabad and Surat are also served by this network.
Two economic benefits of the Golden Quadrilateral Project are-
- This highway interconnects many major cities and ports. It provides an impetus to truck transport throughout India.
- It enables the industrial growth of all small towns through which it passes.
How is a good transport network important for India? (Two points)
Good transport network is important for India as:
- It aids in the process of industrialisation and urbanisation.
- It removes scarcity of goods during any crisis.
Mention two advantages of railways and one disadvantage of airways.
Two advantages of railways are:
- Railways transport raw materials to the production units and finished goods to the markets.
- Railways help in reducing sufferings during natural calamities.
One disadvantage of air transport in India is that it is costly.
(a) Name the terminal stations of East West Corridor.
(b) Who looks after the construction and maintenance of the following?
- National Highways
- Border Roads
(a) The terminal stations of East West Corridor are Porbandar and Silchar.
(b) Central Government constructs and maintains the National Highways.
Border Road Organisation constructs and maintains the border roads.
Give two reasons why we need to manage our waste?
We need to manage our waste because :
- Accumulation of waste causes pollution and affects the environment adversely.
- Improper waste disposal causes various health hazards for living organisms.
Mention one advantage of sanitary landfill and one disadvantage of composting.
An advantage of sanitary landfill is that it is free from air pollution from burning.
One disadvantage of composting is that it requires space and time for the organic materials to decompose properly, making it less suitable for urban areas with limited land availability and a need for quick waste management solutions.
Give reasons for the following:
(a) We should avoid using plastics.
(b) Radioactive wastes are hazardous.
(c) Open dumping is not an environment friendly method of managing waste.
(a) Use of plastics should be avoided because they are non-biodegradable. The carbon bonds in plastic cannot be broken down physically or chemically, requiring incineration, recycling, or landfill disposal.
(b) Radioactive wastes are hazardous due to their long-lasting radiation that can cause severe health effects, such as cancer and genetic mutations, and their potential to contaminate the environment for extended periods, posing risks to ecosystems and future generations.
(c) Open dumping is environmentally unfriendly as it leads to pollution of air, water, and soil, posing health risks to humans and wildlife, and contributes to the spread of diseases. It also hinders recycling efforts and promotes the inefficient use of resources.
How will you as an individual reduce and reuse waste at home?
We can reduce and reuse waste at home in the following manner:
- Separate recyclable materials and ensure they reach appropriate recycling facilities.
- Create a compost system for organic waste, reducing the need for chemical fertilizers.
- Find creative ways to give new life to old items instead of throwing them away.
- Make conscious choices, favoring products with minimal packaging and considering second-hand options.