# Operators in Java

## Multiple Choice Questions

#### Question 1

If a = 8 and b = 4, the value of a %= b is ...........

1. 2
2. 0 ✓
3. 4
4. 8

#### Explanation

a %= b
⇒ a = a % b
⇒ a = 8 % 4     [Putting values of a & b]
⇒ a = 0

% is modulo operator that returns the remainder of the division operation. Dividing 8 by 4 gives 2 as quotient and 0 as remainder so the final answer is 0.

#### Question 2

An operator taking only single operand for its operation is called ...........

1. A unary operator ✓
2. A binary operator
3. A ternary operator
4. None of these

#### Question 3

Which one of the following is not a binary operator?

1. AND
2. %
3. ==
4. ! ✓

#### Explanation

! is the NOT operator that works on only one operand so it is a unary operator not a binary operator.

#### Question 4

Which one of the following is not a valid operator in Java?

1. <=
2. !== ✓
3. !=
4. ==

#### Question 5

The statement i = i + 1 is equivalent to ...........

1. i++
2. i += 1
3. ++i
4. All of these ✓

#### Explanation

All the 3 statements increment the value of i by 1.

#### Question 6

For x = 5, the statement sum = ++x + 8 evaluates to ...........

1. sum = 12
2. sum = 13
3. sum = 14 ✓
4. sum = 15

#### Explanation

sum = ++x + 8
⇒ sum = 6 + 8
⇒ sum = 14

++x will first increment the value of x from 5 to 6 and then use this incremented value in the expression.

#### Question 7

Assuming x = 1 with the following code snippet:
int y = --x;
Which one of the following is true?

1. x=1, y=1
2. x=0, y=0 ✓
3. x=1, y=0
4. x=0, y=1

#### Explanation

--x will first decrement the value of x from 1 to 0 and then assign the decremented value to y so both x and y will be 0.

#### Question 8

The statement (1>0) && (1<0) evaluates to ...........

1. 0
2. 1
3. false ✓
4. true

#### Explanation

`1>0` is true and `1<0` is false so the condition becomes `true && false`. As && return true only when both of its operands are true so the answer is false.

#### Question 9

The statement (1>0) || (1<0) evaluates to ...........

1. 0
2. 1
3. false
4. true ✓

#### Explanation

`1>0` is true and `1<0` is false so the condition becomes `true || false`. As || return true if one or both of its operands are true so the answer is true.

#### Question 10

The statement (1==1)? 1: 0 evaluates to ...........

1. 0
2. 1 ✓
3. false
4. true

#### Explanation

`1==1` is true so the expression just after the question mark (which in this case is 1) is returned.

#### Question 11

The expression 17 % 4 gives the output ...........

1. 4
2. 3
3. 2
4. 1 ✓

#### Explanation

% is modulus operator that returns the remainder of the division operation. Dividing 17 by 4 gives 4 as quotient and 1 as remainder so the final answer is 1.

#### Question 12

Consider the following code snippet:

```float x = 8.25F;
int y;
y = (int) x;```

What are the values of x and y?

1. x= 8.25, y = 8 ✓
2. x = 8.0, y = 8.0
3. x = 8, y = 8.25
4. x = 8, y = 8

#### Explanation

When float value is casted to an int, the digits after the decimal sign are discarded so y is assigned a value of 8.

#### Question 13

The expression 13 / 3 gives the output ...........

1. 4 ✓
2. 3
3. 0
4. 1

#### Explanation

When both operands of division operator (/) are integers then integer division takes place discarding the digits after the decimal sign.

#### Question 14

The statement System.out.println("six " + 3 + 3); gives the output ...........

1. six 33 ✓
2. six 6
3. 33 six
4. 6 six

#### Explanation

First `"six " + 3` is evaluated. As one operand of addition operator (+) is string and other int so int is converted to string and concatenation is performed resulting in "six 3". Next, `"six 3" + 3` is evaluated and similarly the result is six 33.

#### Question 15

The expression 4 + 8 % 2 gives the output ...........

1. 6
2. 8
3. 4 ✓
4. None of these

#### Explanation

4 + 8 % 2
⇒ 4 + 0
⇒ 4

Due to operator precedence 8 % 2 is evaluated first. Its result is 0 so final result is 4.

#### Question 16

Implicit type conversion is also known as ...........

1. Automatic type conversion
2. Type promotion
3. Widening conversion
4. All of these ✓

## State whether the given statements are True or False

#### Question 1

There is only one ternary operator in Java.
True

#### Question 2

Arithmetic operators + and - also have a unary form.
True

#### Question 3

Operators = and == perform the same operation in Java.
False

#### Question 4

The expression 14 % 2 evaluates to 0.
True

#### Question 5

The expression 7 / 13 evaluates to 0.
True

#### Question 6

The output of System.out.println(!true); is false.
True

#### Question 7

The expressions 6 + 7 and "6" + "7" evaluate to the same value.
False

#### Question 8

The expression m = m + 2 is same as m =+ 2.
False

#### Question 9

The new operator allocates memory during runtime.
True

#### Question 10

The statements n = 25 and n == 25 are same.
False

#### Question 11

The expression p =- 9 is same as p = p-9.
False

#### Question 12

The assignment operator (=) is a binary operator.
True

#### Question 13

The output of System.out.println(1==1); is true.
True

#### Question 14

Explicit type conversion is also known as coercion.
False

## Assignment Questions

#### Question 1

We have two variables x and y. Write Java statements to calculate the result of division of y by x and calculate the remainder of the division.

```int quotient = y / x;
int remainder = y % x;```

#### Question 2

Assign the value of pi (i.e., 3.142) to a variable with requisite data type.

`float pi = 3.142f;`

#### Question 3

What are logical operators? Give an example of each.

Logical operators operate only on boolean operands and are used to construct complex decision-making expressions. Some of the logical operators are given below:

OperatorSymbol
Logical AND&&
Logical OR||
Logical NOT!

#### Question 4

What is an assignment operator? Give an example.

Assignment operator is used to assign the value of an expression to a variable. It has the following syntax:

`variable = expression;`

For example,

`totalMarks = 780;`

The above statement assigns the value of 780 to the variable totalMarks. Any previous value stored in totalMarks variable is overwritten by this new value.

#### Question 5

Explain the shorthand assignment operator with an example.

Java provides shorthand assignment operators for all the arithmetic binary operators. Shorthand assignment operators follow the below syntax:

`variable = variable operation expression;`

Taking the example of shorthand addition operator, the expression `x = x + 3` can be rewritten as `x += 3;`

#### Question 6

What is the purpose of the new operator?

The new operator is used to allocate memory for the object.

#### Question 7

What is the use and syntax of a ternary operator?

Ternary operator is used to check if a condition is true and false. Depending on whether the condition tests true or false, expression 1 or expression 2 is evaluated. Its syntax is:

`boolean-expression ? expression1 : expression2;`

#### Question 8

State the difference between = and ==.

===
It is the assignment operator used for assigning a value to a variable.It is the equality operator used to check if a variable is equal to another variable or literal.
E.g. int a = 10; assigns 10 to variable a.E.g. if (a == 10) checks if variable a is equal to 10 or not.

#### Question 9

If a = 5, b = 9, calculate the value of:
a += a++ - ++b + a

a += a++ - ++b + a
⇒ a = a + (a++ - ++b + a)
⇒ a = 5 + (5 - 10 + 6)
⇒ a = 5 + 1
⇒ a = 6

a++ first uses the current value of a (which is 5) in the expression and then increments it to 6. ++b first increment the current value of b to 10 and uses this incremented value in the expression.

#### Question 10

Distinguish between the following:

a. Prefix and Postfix Increment

Prefix IncrementPostfix Increment
It works on the principle of first increment, then use.It works on the principle of first use, then increment.
It (++) is written before the operand.It (++) is written after the operand.
Example:
`int a = 99;`
`int b = ++a;`
After the execution of these two statements, both a and b will have the value of 100.
Example:
`int a = 99;`
`int b = a++;`
After the execution of these two statements, a will have the value of 100 and b will have the value of 99.

b. Prefix and Postfix Decrement

Prefix DecrementPostfix Decrement
It works on the principle of first decrement, then use.It works on the principle of first use, then decrement.
It (--) is written before the operand.It (--) is written after the operand.
Example:
`int a = 100;`
`int b = --a;`
After the execution of these two statements, both a and b will have the value of 99.
Example:
`int a = 100;`
`int b = a--;`
After the execution of these two statements, a will have the value of 99 and b will have the value of 100.

c. Unary and Binary Operators

Unary OperatorsBinary Operators
It operates on a single operandIt operates on two operands
Increment (++) and Decrement (--) operators are examples of Unary Arithmetic OperatorsMultiplication (*) and Division (/) are examples of Binary Arithmetic Operators

d. Increment and Decrement Operator

Increment OperatorDecrement Operator
Increment operators increment the value of their operand by 1.Decrement operators decrement the value of their operand by 1.
Increment operators are represented by ++ symbol.Decrement operators are represented by -- symbol.

e. / and % operator

/%
It is the Division operatorIt is the Modulus operator
Returns the quotient of division operationReturns the remainder of division operation
Example: int a = 5 / 2; Here a will get the value of 2 which is the quotient of this division operationExample: int b = 5 % 2; Here b will get the value of 1 which is the remainder of this division operation

#### Question 11

If m=5, n=2; what will be the output of m and n after execution?
i. m -= n       ii. n = m + m/n

i.  m -= n
⇒ m = m - n
⇒ m = 5 - 2
⇒ m = 3

ii. n = m + m/n
⇒ n = 5 + 5/2
⇒ n = 5 + 2
⇒ n = 7

#### Question 12

If x = 3, y = 7, calculate the value of:
x -= x++ - ++y

x -= x++ - ++y
⇒ x = x - (x++ - ++y)
⇒ x = 3 - (3 - 8)
⇒ x = 3 - (-5)
⇒ x = 3 + 5
⇒ x = 8

#### Question 13

What will be the output of the following if x=5?
i. 5 * ++x
ii. 5 * x++

i.  5 * ++x
⇒ 5 * 6
⇒ 30

ii.  5 * x++
⇒ 5 * 5
⇒ 25

#### Question 14

What is type conversion? How is an implicit type conversion different from explicit type conversion?

Type conversion is a process that converts a value of one data type to another data type.

In an implicit conversion, the result of a mixed mode expression is obtained in the higher most data type of the variables without any intervention by the user. For example:

```int a = 10;
float b = 25.5f, c;
c = a + b;```

In case of explicit type conversion, the data gets converted to a type as specified by the programmer. For example:

```int a = 10;
double b = 25.5;
float c = (float)(a + b);```

#### Question 15

What do you understand by type conversion?

Type conversion is a process that converts a value of one data type to another data type.

#### Question 16

Explain the term 'typecasting'.

The process of converting a value of one data type to another data type is called typecasting.

#### Question 17

What are precedence and associativity?

Precedence of operators refers to the order in which the operators are applied to the operands in an expression.
Associativity of operators refers to the direction of execution of operators ("Left to Right" or "Right to Left") when operators in an expression have the same precedence.

#### Question 18

Evaluate the following expressions, if the values of the variables are a = 2, b = 3 and c = 3

i. a - (b++) * (--c)

ii. a * (++b) %c

i.  a - (b++) * (--c)
⇒ 2 - 3 * 2
⇒ 2 - 6
⇒ -4

ii. a * (++b) %c
⇒ 2 * 4 % 3
⇒ 8 % 3
⇒ 2

#### Question 19

Write the Java expressions for the following:

i. (a + b)2 + b

Math.pow(a+b, 2) + b

ii. a2 + b2

a * a + b * b

iii. z = x3 + y3 + (xy) / 3

z = Math.pow(x, 3) + Math.pow(y, 3) + x * y / 3

iv. f = a2 + b2 / a2 - b2

f = (a * a + b * b) / (a * a - b * b)

v. z = ab + bc + ca / 3abc

z = (a * b + b * c + c * a) / (3 * a * b * c)

vi. 0 <= x <= 50

x >= 0 && x <= 50

vii. a = (0.05 - 2y3) / x - y

a = (0.05 - 2 * y * y * y) / (x - y)

viii. (a + b)n / √3 + b

Math.pow(a+b, n) / (Math.sqrt(3) + b)

ix. ax + by / ∛x + ∛y

(Math.pow(a, x) + Math.pow(b, y)) / (Math.cbrt(x) + Math.cbrt(y))

#### Question 20

Rewrite the following statements without using shorthand operators.

a. p /= q
b. p -= 1
c. p *= q + r
d. p -= q - r

a. p = p / q
b. p = p - 1
c. p = p * (q + r)
d. p = p - (q - r)

#### Question 21

Determine the output of the following program.

```public class Test
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
int a = 1, b = 2;
System.out.println("Output1: " + a + b);
System.out.println("Output2: " + (a + b));
}
}```

#### Output

``````Output1: 12
Output2: 3
``````

#### Explanation

In the first println statement, the expression is `"Output1: " + a + b`. First `"Output1: " + a` is evaluated. As one operand of addition operator is string and other is int so int is casted to string and concatenated giving the result as "Output1: 1". After that, `"Output1: 1" + 2` is evaluated and similarly the result is Output1: 12.
In second println statement, the expression is "Output2: " + (a + b). Due to brackets, (a + b) is evaluated first. As both operands are integers so they are added giving the result as 3. After that, "Output2: " + 3 is evaluated, resulting in "Output2: 3".

#### Question 22

What is the difference between the following two statements in terms of execution? Explain the results.
x -= 5;
x =- 5;

The first statement, `x -= 5;` subtracts 5 from x and assigns the result back to x. It is equivalent to `x = x - 5;`
The second statement, `x =- 5;` assigns the value of -5 to x.

#### Question 23

What is concatenation? On which data type is concatenation performed?

Concatenation means joining two strings together. It is performed on String data type.

#### Question 24

Determine the output of the following program.

```public class PredictOutput1
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int a = 4, b = 2, c = 3;
System.out.println("Output 1: " + (a = b * c));
System.out.println("Output 2: " + (a = (b * c)));
}
}```

#### Output

``````Output 1: 6
Output 2: 6
``````

#### Explanation

In the first println statement, the expression is `(a = b * c)`. * has higher precedence than = so first b and c are multiplied and after that the result is assigned to a. Assignment operator returns the value of the assignment so the result of this `(a = b * c)` entire expression is 6.
In the second println statement, the expression is `(a = (b * c))`. Putting b * c in brackets causes b * c to be evaluated first but the result is same as the first println statement as * has higher precedence than =.

#### Question 25

Determine the output of the following program.

```public class PredictOutput2
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int a = 6, b = 2, c = 3;
System.out.println("Output 1: " + (a == b * c));
System.out.println("Output 2: " + (a == (b * c)));
}
}```

#### Output

``````Output 1: true
Output 2: true
``````

#### Explanation

b * c results in 6 which is equal to the value of a so true is printed in both the cases.

#### Question 26

Determine the output of the following program.

```public class PredictOutput3
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int a = 2, b = 2, c = 2;
System.out.println("Output 1: " + (a + 2 < b * c));
System.out.println("Output 2: " + (a + 2 < (b * c)));
}
}```

#### Output

``````Output 1: false
Output 2: false
``````

#### Explanation

In the first println statement, the expression is `(a + 2 < b * c)`. b * c is evaluated first as * has higher precedence than + and <. After that a + 2 is evaluated as between + and <, + has higher precedence. Comparison is done in the end. As 4 < 4 is false so false is printed. The case of second println statement is similar.