Fill in the blanks.
(i) R.F. stands for ............... .
(ii) ............... coming from the sun penetrates the atmosphere and is absorbed by the Earth.
(iii) ............... is a place where weather conditions are recorded with the help of instruments.
(iv) Cuba is a major producer of ............... .
(v) Antarctica Treaty was signed in ............... .
(i) R.F. stands for representative fraction .
(ii) Ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun penetrates the atmosphere and is absorbed by the Earth.
(iii) Weather Station is a place where weather conditions are recorded with the help of instruments.
(iv) Cuba is a major producer of Sugar .
(v) Antarctica Treaty was signed in 1959 .
Match the following
|Column A||Column B|
|IBM||Iron and steel company|
|Wales||Association of European Nations.|
|Column A||Column B|
|Durgapur||Iron and steel company|
|EU||Association of European Nations|
The port nearest to the Tata Steel Company.
The leading shipbuilding yard in S.E. Asia
- S. Korea
Bhilai Steel Plant was set up with collaboration of
Fossil fuels are found in
- Igneous rocks
- Sedimentary rocks
- Metamorphic rocks
- All of these
Northern part of Africa is a
Answer in one word.
(i) Deep inlets of sea lying between high cliffs.
(ii) A shallow low lying on the earths surface.
(iii) Chain of mountains formed due to compression.
(iv) Land of ten thousand lakes.
(v) A narrow steep sided valley, formed between two parallel fault.
(iii) Fold mountains
(v) Rift valley
Draw a neat diagram to show a wet and dry thermometer.
Below diagrams shows a wet and dry thermometer:
State the major effects of climate change.
Following are the major effects of climate change:
- Changes in rainfall patterns.
- Increased frequency of extreme weather like flash flood, storm and heat wave.
- Rise in sea level due to melting of polar ice.
- Increased frequency of tropical cyclones.
Name the major greenhouse gases and their sources.
The major greenhouse gases and their sources are:
|1.||Carbon dioxide||Respiration, combustion of fossil fuels, exhausts of automobiles.|
|2.||Methane||Natural wetlands, rice fields, livestock, natural gas production, biomass burning, termites, landfills, coal mining.|
|3.||Nitrous Oxide||Released by oceans and soil, biomass burning, nitrogenous fertilizers, exhausts of automobiles|
|4.||CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons)||Coolants in AC and Refrigerators, aerosol sprays.|
What is the importance of topographical survey maps? What is meant by the term brackish?
Topographical maps are based on accurate survey of the land. They show natural features of the ground like hills elevation, drainage, trees and vegetation as well as man-made features like towns, villages, buildings, roads, canals, railways, power transmission lines and other cultural features in detail. Therefore, they are of great importance to military and travelers.
The well whose water is unfit for drinking and cultivation as it is salty is said to be brackish.
What is meant by denudation? Define the term exfoliation.
Denudation is a dynamic process that includes the disintegration and decomposition of rocks, transportation of the eroded material and deposition of it at some other place. Therefore, process of denudation is two-fold process that is both destructive and constructive.
The changes in temperature during summer and winter and in case of arid region, during day and night, cause expansion and contraction in the rock surfaces. This causes the rocks to break-up or peel off. Rectangular rock blocks are thus, gradually rounded by splitting away of sharp corners. This process is called exfoliation.
State any three raw materials required for iron and steel industry.
The iron and steel industry require raw materials like:
- Iron ore
What are the key elements of information technology?
The key elements of information technology are hardware and software that are important to use computer to store, retrieve, transmit, manipulate data or information. It is done in context of business or other enterprises.
State the location and extent of Europe.
Europe is the western most peninsula of the giant supercontinent Eurasia and the second smallest continent in the world. It lies entirely in the temperate zone of the Northern hemisphere and extends from the island nation of Iceland in the West to the Ural Mountains of Russia in the east. It extends from 36°N to 72°N latitude and approximately 25°W to 60°E longitude.
Why is Africa called the Dark continent?
Africa was known as the dark continent because it remained unexplored for a fairly long period of time. The reasons for the late discovery of the continent were:
- The Sahara desert in the north is the greatest obstacle for southward movement of people, as it is a vast desert.
- The large interior of Africa is densely forested forming a canopy so that even sun rays cannot penetrate.
Why is Egypt known as the Gift of Nile?
The country Egypt is called the Gift of the Nile as it is Egypt’s lifeline. Without the Nile, Egypt would have been a desert. The Nile gave Egypt fertile, fine silt soil and alluvial deposition. This soil is good for growing crops.
Name the factors that may cause damage to coral reefs.
Some of the factors that may cause damage to coral reefs are:
- Climate Change.
- Ocean acidification and pollution.
- Human activities like swimming, diving and mining.
What is the significance of Bhakra-Nangal Project?
Significance of Bhakra Nangal project:
- It provides electricity for industrial, agricultural and domestic use. Electricity is used for tube wells, which are the main source of irrigation where canals are not available.
- This project has helped in controlling floods in the river Sutlej downstream.
- It also helps in soil conservation, afforestation and development of fish culture.
- It benefits many industries like textile, cotton ,sugar etc.
Differentiate the following.
(a) Chemical weathering and Mechanical weathering.
(b) Linear scale and Verbal Scale.
(c) Agro-based and Mineral based industry.
(a) Difference between chemical and mechanical weathering:
|Chemical weathering||Mechanical weathering|
|It involves the breaking down of rocks by altering or dissolving the rock minerals due to chemical action or changes||It is responsible for the disintegration of rocks by the elements of weather such as heat, frost and wind.|
|The processes involved in chemical weathering are Oxidation, Carbonation, Hydration and Solution.||The processes involved in mechanical weathering are Exfoliation, Granular disintegration and Block disintegration.|
|Chemical weathering is slow as compared to mechanical weathering.||Mechanical weathering is comparatively faster.|
(b) Difference between linear scale and verbal scale:
|Linear scale||Verbal scale|
|This scale represents the relationship between the distance on the map and distance on the ground.||In this method the scale is expressed in words, e.g., 1 cm on the map represents 50 km on the ground.|
|It is the most accurate method of measuring distance on the map.||It does not give the accurate measurement.|
(c) Difference between Agro-based and Mineral based industry:
|Agro-based industries||Mineral-based industries|
|Agro-based industries depend on agriculture for supply of their raw materials.||Mineral-based industries receive their raw materials from minerals.|
Sugar industry, Textile industry.
Iron and Steel industry, Cement industry.
Give reasons for the following.
(a) Europe is called the peninsula of peninsulas.
(b) Antarctica is considered uninhabitable for human beings.
(c) We should grow trees around the industries.
(a) Europe looks like a peninsula extending westwards of the Asiatic landmass. Large arms of the seas have penetrated deep into the land and have created smaller peninsulas. That is why Europe is called the "peninsula of peninsulas".
(b) Antarctica’s freezing climate and barren glacier coasts with not a drop of fresh water to drink, isolated from the world, makes it impossible for normal life. Therefore, Antarctica is uninhabitable for human beings.
(c) Industries cause pollution. Growing trees around industries helps to reduce pollution and purify the air. Trees also help to reduce sound pollution caused by industries in addition to adding aesthetic value of that area.