Objective Type Questions
The part of a computer that allows the user to view information on a screen.
Reason — Monitor allows the user to view information on a screen.
This part sends signals to other parts of the computer to tell them what to do.
- Hard disk
Reason — CPU (Central Processing Unit) sends signals to other parts of the computer to tell them what to do.
This memory is for short term storage and is lost when the computer is turned off.
- Hard disk
Reason — RAM (Random Access Memory) is for short term storage and is lost when the computer is turned off.
This part allows the user to hear information from the computer.
Reason — Speaker is an output device which allows the user to hear information from the computer.
Another name for all the parts of a computer.
Reason — Hardware refers to all the parts of a computer that we can see and touch.
This part stores data, programs, settings, and the operating system while the computer is off. While it is on, it spins inside the computer reading and writing data.
- Hard Disk
Reason — Hard disk is the secondary storage device which stores data, programs, settings, and the operating system while the computer is off. While it is on, it spins inside the computer reading and writing data.
There are two basic types of disk-drives ............... disk-drives and flash drives.
There are two basic types of disk-drives hard disk-drives and flash drives.
Printed copy is often called ............... .
Printed copy is often called hard copy.
............... printers do not use physical impact to transfer characters to paper.
Non-impact printers do not use physical impact to transfer characters to paper.
Data representation in a computer uses the ............... number system.
Data representation in a computer uses the binary number system.
The CPU is made up of two smaller components: the ............... or ............... and the ............... or ............... .
The CPU is made up of two smaller components: the ALU or Arithmetic and Logic Unit and the CU or Control unit.
The binary system uses the symbols ............... and ............... .
The binary system uses the symbols 0 and 1.
The digits of the binary system are called ............... .
The digits of the binary system are called bits.
A unit of eight bit memory cell groups is called a ............... .
A unit of eight bit memory cell groups is called a byte.
A KB in computer terminology is equal to ............... bytes.
A KB in computer terminology is equal to 1024 bytes.
The most familiar output device for the microcomputer is the ............... .
The most familiar output device for the microcomputer is the monitor.
The four functional components of a digital computer are: input device, ............... , ............... and output device.
The four functional components of a digital computer are: input device, CPU (Central Processing Unit) , Memory and output device.
Internal storage is also called main ............... .
Internal storage is also called main memory.
Instructions to computer are given through ............... .
Instructions to computer are given through input devices.
Calculations are made in computer with the help of its ............... .
Calculations are made in computer with the help of its ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit).
The term bit stands for ............... .
The term bit stands for binary digit.
A unit of measure equal to approximately 1 billion bytes is called a ............... .
A unit of measure equal to approximately 1 billion bytes is called a 1 GB or 1 Giga Byte.
A collection of eight bits is called ............... .
Reason — A collection of eight bits is called a byte.
Which of the following is an example of non-volatile memory?
Reason — ROM (Read Only Memory) is an example of non-volatile memory as the instructions stored in it are retained even when the computer is switched off.
Which of the following is a unit of measurement used with computer system ?
- All of the above
All of the above
Reason — Bytes, megabytes and gigabytes are all units of measurement used with computer system.
Which of the following statements is false?
- secondary storage is non-volatile
- primary storage is volatile
- when the computer is turned off, data and instructions stored in primary storage are erased
- None of the above
None of the above
Reason — All the given statements are true. Secondary storage retains data when the system is turned off. Thus, it is non volatile.
Considering RAM as primary memory, we can say that RAM is volatile and when the computer is turned off, data and instructions stored in primary storage are erased.
What does OCR stand for?
- Optical Character Reader
- Optical Character Recognition
- Operational Character Reader
- Only Character Reader
Optical Character Reader
Reason — OCR stands for Optical Character Reader.
Dot Matrix is a type of ................. .
Reason — Dot Matrix is a type of printer.
The secondary storage devices can only store data but they cannot perform ................. .
- Arithmetic operations
- Logic operations
- Fetch operations
- Either of the above
Either of the above
Reason — The secondary storage devices can only store data but they cannot perform arithmetic, logic or fetch operations.
Which of the following does not represent an I/O device?
- Speaker which beeps
Reason — ALU (Arithmetic and Logical Unit) is a part of CPU which performs arithmetical operations. Speaker and plotter are output devices while joystick is an input device.
Which of the following is a correct definition of volatile memory?
- It loses its contents at high temperatures
- It is to be kept in airtight boxes
- It loses its contents on failure of power supply
- It does not lose its contents on failure of power supply
It loses its contents on failure of power supply
Reason — Volatile memory loses its contents on failure of power supply.
One thousand bytes represent a ............... .
- None of the above
Reason — One thousand bytes represent a megabyte. (1024 bytes = 1 Mb)
Large amounts of cheques are processed by using ............... .
- All of the above
Reason — Large amounts of cheques are processed by using MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader).
The concentric circles on the floppy disk are further divided into :
- None of the above
Reason — Each circular path on the surface of the floppy disk is called a track. Each track is divided into smaller, pie-shaped sections called sectors.
Which of the following storage devices can be used for storing large backup data ?
- Floppy disks
- Hard disk
- Magnetic tapes
- None of the above
Reason — Hard disk can be used for storing large backup data.
Control Unit (CU) is called the .................. of a computer.
- Nerve centre or brain
- Primary memory
- All of the above
Nerve centre or brain
Reason — Control Unit (CU) is called the nerve centre or brain of a computer.
What does a storage unit provide ?
- A place to show data
- A place to store currently worked on information
- A place to store information
A place to store information
Reason — A storage unit provides a place to store information.
What are the four basic components of a computer ?
- Input devices, output devices, printing, and typing
- Input devices, processing unit, storage, and output devices
- Input devices, CPU, output devices, and RAM
Input devices, processing unit, storage, and output devices
Reason — The four functional units of a computer are input devices, processing unit, storage, and output devices.
What are examples of storage devices ?
- Keyboards, flash drive, printer
- Flash drive, RAM, DVD-ROM
- Hard drive, DVD-ROM, flash drive
Hard drive, DVD-ROM, flash drive
Reason — Hard drive, DVD-ROM, flash drive are examples of storage devices.
What is the processing unit ?
- The brains of the computer
- This is the main circuit board that all other internal components are connected to.
- A device that receives, processes, and presents information.
The brains of the computer
Reason — The processing unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer.
What does RAM stand for?
- Retrieve Alternate Memory
- Read Always Memory
- Random Access Memory
Random Access Memory
Reason — RAM stands for Random Access Memory.
What kind of information can be found in a ROM ?
- The operating system
- Basic Input/Output System
Basic Input/Output System
Reason — Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) can be found in a ROM.
Which of the following is a soft copy and a hard copy ?
- Output on a monitor
- Output on a printer
Output on a monitor is soft copy as we cannot touch and feel it.
Output on a printer is hard copy as we can touch and feel it.
What role do Input unit and Output unit play in a computer system ?
The input unit is responsible for accepting input i.e., data and instructions from the user. The output unit is responsible for producing the output in user readable form.
Describe the functioning of CPU.
CPU is the brain of a computer system and it executes the programs in following manner :
- When a program reaches into memory, the control unit (CU) of CPU reads the program instructions one by one.
- The CU then determines the type of instruction i.e., whether it is an arithmetic (calculations) or logical (comparisons) or I/O (reading or writing) type of instruction.
- For arithmetic or logical type of instructions, CU directs the ALU (Arithmetic and logic unit) to carry out the instructions.
- For input type of instruction, CU directs the Input unit to carry out the instruction and for Output type of instruction, it directs the output unit to carry out the instruction.
What role does the memory play in the functioning of a computer system ?
Computer makes use of two types of memories :
- Internal memory (primary or main memory) — It is the built-in memory which the CPU uses to hold data and instructions. The internal memory is temporary and has limited storage capacity.
- External memory (auxiliary or secondary memory) — It is the external storage used by computer to store data and instructions permanently. Floppy disks, hard disks, CD ROM, DVDs etc. comprise this memory.
Discuss two popular input devices.
Two popular input devices are:
Keyboard — Keyboard is a typewriter like device which is used to type in the letters, digits and commands. It contains a matrix of switches (one switch per key). Each key, when pressed, sends a digital code to the computer that determines which key has been pressed.
Mouse — The mouse is pointing device that points to a position on computer screen. Mouse controls movement of pointer on screen. When a mouse moves on a flat surface, the cursor on the screen also moves in the direction of mouse's movement. A mouse generally has two or three buttons and it may or may not have a wheel.
What is a pointing device ? Name a popular pointing device.
A pointing device is an input device used to interact with a computer by controlling the on-screen pointer or cursor. It allows users to move the pointer across the screen and make selections or perform actions by clicking buttons.
A mouse is a popular pointing device.
When is a scanner used for input ? Discuss various types of scanners.
A scanner is used for input when we want to convert physical documents or images into digital format and store them on a computer or other electronic device. It allows us to create electronic versions of physical documents, photographs, or artwork.
The various types of scanners are as follows:
- Hand-held Scanners — These are very small which can be held in a hand.
- Flatbed Scanners — These are larger and more expensive scanners but they definitely create higher quality images. These scanners have a flat surface on which the printed image to be scanned, is placed.
- Drum Scanners — These are medium-size scanners with a rolling drum. The sheet is fed through the scanners so that the drum rolls over the entire sheet to be scanned.
Discuss the functioning of a light pen.
A light pen is a light-sensitive input device shaped like a pen, used to draw on the computer screen or make menu selections. It works by detecting flashes of light emitted from the computer screen to determine its position and interact with the display.
When is a bar code reader used for input and how ?
A barcode reader is used to read bar codes which can be found on products in shops. The barcode reader uses lasers to identify the position and thickness of the bars. These bar codes convey the required information to the computer and make the billing smooth and efficient.
How important is control unit in a computer system ?
The control unit is highly important in a computer system as it directs and coordinates all operations of the CPU. When a program reaches into memory, the control unit (CU) of CPU reads the program instructions one by one and executes the program as follows:
- The Control Unit determines the type of instruction i.e., whether it is an arithmetic (calculations) or logical (comparisons) or I/O (reading or writing) type of instruction.
- For arithmetic or logical type of instructions, Control Unit directs the ALU (Arithmetic and logic unit) to carry out the instructions.
- For Input type of instruction, Control Unit directs the Input unit to carry out the instruction and for Output type of instruction, it directs the output unit to carry out the instruction.
Thus, without the Control Unit, the CPU would not function effectively, impacting the overall performance and functionality of the computer.
Discuss various storage units.
Various storage units are as follows:
- Hard Disks — Hard disk memories store information on spinning circular platters coated with magnetic material and stacked with space between them. Magnetic heads record tiny magnetic spots on the rotating disk surface to store information.
- Compact Disks (CDs) — Compact disks (CDs) are optical media with storage capacity up to 700 MB. They come in various forms, such as CDROM (CD-Read Only Memory), CD-R (CD-Recordable), and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable), and are relatively inexpensive.
- DVDs — DVD is an optical storage device resembling a compact disc but with approximately 15 times more storage capacity and 20 times faster data transfer than a CD-ROM. It can hold up to 17 GB of data. DVDs come in various varieties: DVD-ROM (DVD-Read Only Memory), DVD-R (DVD-Recordable), and DVD-RW (DVD-Rewritable).
- Pen/Thumb Drives — It uses a memory technology called 'Flash'. Flash is a 'solid state' memory i.e., it has no moving parts. It retains data even when the power is switched off.
- Blu-Ray disc — Blu-ray is the successor to DVD. It is called Blu-ray because it uses a blue laser to read from and write to the disc. It offers significantly higher data storage in the same 12-centimeter space, with common capacities of 25 GB and 50 GB.
- Memory Stick — A memory stick is a removable memory card used to store information in devices like digital cameras, smartphones, music players, and portable PlayStations. Capacities range from 4 GBs to 128 GBs.
There are two types of internal memory in computer system. Name and discuss them.
The two types of internal memory in computer system are as follows:
Read Only Memory (ROM) — In this memory, information once stored remains fixed i.e., it cannot be changed. So, ROM can only be read and used. It cannot be changed or written onto.
Generally, ROM contains a set of start-up instructions i.e., what to do when a computer is turned on. The contents of ROM remain stored even if power is turned off.
Random Access Memory (RAM) — The internal memory that can be read from as well as written to is called RAM i.e., Random Access Memory. The random access memory (RAM) is volatile i.e., its contents are lost when power is turned off.
Compare and contrast internal memory and external memory.
|Internal memory||External memory|
|1.||This memory is directly connected to and accessed by a computer's CPU.||This memory is not directly connected to and accessed by a computer's CPU.|
|3.||Faster data access.||Slower data access.|
|4.||It is used for processing data.||It is used for storing large amounts of data permanently.|
|5.||It is small in size.||It is of large size.|
|6.||It is also called main memory or primary memory.||It is also called auxiliary memory or secondary memory.|
Why is auxiliary memory required ?
The auxiliary memory is required because of the following reasons:
- Capacity — Main memory has limited capacity whereas auxiliary memory capacity is many more times compared to main memory.
- Permanent in nature — RAM is volatile and auxiliary memory is permanent. Data in main memory is lost when the power goes off but in auxiliary memory, the data remains there even after the power goes off.
Discuss the usage of hard disk.
Hard disk is an external memory. Hard disk memories store information on spinning circular platters coated with magnetic material and stacked with space between them. Magnetic heads record tiny magnetic spots on the rotating disk surface to store information.
Discuss the functioning of DVDs.
DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) is an optical storage device resembling a compact disc but with significantly greater capacity and faster data transfer. It can hold up to 17 GB of data. DVDs use a laser to read and store digital data as pits and lands on a reflective disc coated with a thin metal layer. These data patterns, representing 0s and 1s, are decoded to retrieve audio, video, or other information.
When are magnetic tapes used and how ?
Magnetic tapes are used for long-term data storage and archival purposes in various industries.
Magnetic tapes store data sequentially on a thin, magnetized strip and are commonly employed for backup storage, data retrieval, and offline data preservation. They offer cost-effective and reliable storage solutions.
Application Oriented Questions
What is the most suitable storage medium for storing an encyclopedia ?
- floppy disk
- CD ROM
Reason — CD-ROMs have larger storage capacity compared to other storage media and they are portable and can be easily accessed on various devices with CD-ROM drives.
Which of the following statements is not correct ?
- RAM stores the instructions for starting up the computer
- RAM holds the data that is being worked upon
- RAM is volatile
- RAM can be read from and written to
RAM stores the instructions for starting up the computer
Reason — ROM (Read Only Memory) stores the instructions for starting up the computer.
Part of the Central Processing Unit is the CPU. What does ALU stand for ?
- Analogue Logic Unit
- Arithmetic Learning Unit
- Arithmetic Logic Unit
- Analogue Learning Unit
Arithmetic Logic Unit
Reason — The full form of ALU is Arithmetic Logic Unit.
At the moment when an item is sold at the refreshment kiosk, the item code is keyed in using a conventional keypad. During busy periods this method is too slow and queues develop. Recommend a more suitable input device. Explain how this device works.
A concept keyboard is a more suitable option to key in items at a refreshment kiosk as it will be faster.
Concept keyboards provide a practical alternative to standard keyboards in scenarios requiring simplicity, ease of use, and customization. They display graphical symbols or icons representing specific functions, commands, or data inputs on a flat surface or panel.
There are two types of memory, random access memory (RAM) and read only memory (ROM).
(i) Give one use for RAM
(ii) Give one use for ROM
(iii) Describe the differences between RAM and ROM.
(i) RAM stores the required data and information during the processing phase.
(ii) ROM stores a set of start-up instructions that tell the computer what to do when it is powered on.
(iii) The differences between RAM and ROM are as follows:
|Full form||Random Access Memory||Read-only memory|
|Definition||RAM is a form of data storage that can be accessed randomly at any time, in any order by CPU.||ROM is also a form of data storage that generally stores hardwired instructions (instructions stored as form of circuit) for the computer to start initially.|
|Alterations||RAM contents can be changed or altered as and when required.||ROM cannot be easily altered or reprogrammed.|
|Use||RAM allows the computer to read data quickly to run applications.||ROM stores the program required to initially boot the computer or reboot the computer.|
|Operations supported||It allows reading and writing.||It only allows reading.|
|Volatility||RAM is volatile i.e., its contents are lost when the device is powered off.||It is non-volatile i.e., its contents are retained even when the device is powered off.|
|Size||Larger than ROM; can be up to some Giga Bytes (GBs)||Smaller but large enough to hold basic instructions ; is up to some Mega Bytes (MBs)|
|Speed||RAM chips can read data faster than ROM.||ROM is slower as compared to RAM.|
All workstations in the Betterview shops have TWO input devices and TWO output devices.
(a) Give the names of two input devices that must be part of a workstation.
(b) Give the names of two output devices that must be part of a workstation.
(a) Keyboard and Mouse.
(b) Monitor and Printer.
Lorretta produces publicity leaflets for Betterview.
Publicity leaflets contain articles, photographs and diagrams.
Lorretta has additional hardware for producing these leaflets.
This includes a colour scanner.
(a) Describe how Loretta should use her computer workstation to :
- store a photograph as a computer file ;
- load the stored photograph into one of the blank boxes.
(b) Lorretta needs to produce a proof colour copy of the leaflet to show to her manager. Describe two features of a printer which would be needed to produce the leaflet.
- Loretta should use a colour scanner to store a photograph as a computer file by following the given steps:
- She should place the photograph on the scanner bed and use the scanning software on the computer to initiate the scanning process.
- Choose the desired format and resolution for the scan.
- Save the scanned photograph to a specific folder on the computer's hard drive.
- To load the stored photograph into one of the blank boxes on the leaflet, Loretta can use desktop publishing software in the following manner:
- Open the software and create a new project or open the existing leaflet design.
- Locate the blank box where the photograph should be inserted.
- Use the software's "insert image" or "import image" function to browse and select the previously scanned photograph.
- Resize and position the photograph within the box as needed.
(b) Two features of the printer which would be needed to produce the leaflet are:
- High-resolution printing — A high-resolution printer of minimum 300 DPI (dots per inch) is essential to produce a proof colour copy with sharp images and text.
- Color accuracy and calibration — To ensure the printed leaflet's colours match the digital design, Loretta needs a printer with good color accuracy and calibration.
Give two ways in which a CD-ROM disc is different from a floppy disc.
Two ways in which a CD-ROM disc is different from a floppy disc are:
- Storage capacity — CD-ROMs can hold around 700 MB of data, while floppy discs typically have a storage capacity ranging from 1.44 MB (3.5-inch) to 1.2 MB (5.25-inch).
- Durability and reliability — Floppy discs are susceptible to physical damage, data corruption, and magnetic interference. CD-ROMs, on the other hand, use optical technology, which makes them more resistant to physical damage and offers better data integrity over time.
A pupil is researching material for a school project. The pupil has a computer that has a CD-ROM drive and access to the Internet.
(i) Give one advantage of using the Internet rather than a CD-ROM.
(ii) Give one advantage of using a CD-ROM rather than the Internet.
(i) An advantage of Internet is that it provides access to a wide range of resources, including articles, research papers, multimedia content, and the latest news, allowing the pupil to access the most current and relevant information for their school project.
(ii) One advantage of using a CD-ROM rather than the Internet is that it does not require an active internet connection to access the information. CD-ROMs are self-contained and can be accessed directly from the computer's CD-ROM drive, making them a reliable source of information even in areas with limited or no internet access.
A company is developing a piece of multimedia language software for use in a school. Give two reasons why the company decides to issue the software on CD-ROM and not on floppy discs.
The company chooses CD-ROMs over floppy discs for the following reasons:
- Larger storage capacity — Multimedia language software typically contains a large amount of data, including audio, video, and interactive elements. CD-ROMs offer a significantly larger storage capacity compared to floppy discs.
- Better data transfer rate — CD-ROMs have a faster data transfer rate compared to floppy discs. This means that the software can load and access data more quickly from a CD-ROM, resulting in a smoother and more responsive user experience.
A newspaper needs some pictures to insert onto the front page. Give three ways you can use Information Technology to obtain the pictures in electronic form.
The pictures can be obtained in electronic form using Information Technology in the following ways:
- Online Image Databases — They can access stock photo websites for a wide selection of pictures.
- Social Media & User-Generated Content — They can search for relevant images shared by users on social media platforms like Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, etc. and use them with proper permission and attribution.
- Digital Cameras and Smartphones — They can capture original pictures using digital cameras or smartphones.
Give one reason why a digital camera is suitable for obtaining pictures for a multimedia presentation.
Digital cameras capture high-resolution, digital images that look sharp, vibrant and engaging when displayed on screens or projected onto larger surfaces.
Give one reason why you would not edit a large movie file on a CD-ROM.
CD-ROMs are read only storage devices i.e., once data is written to the CD-ROM, it cannot be modified, edited, or deleted. Hence, editing a large movie file directly on a CD-ROM is not possible as it would restrict us from saving the changes made.
Each piece of hardware in the table below is either an input, output or storage device. For each, put a tick in the correct box. As an example, a keyboard is an input device so a tick is placed in the Input column. Tick one box only for each device.
|Hard disk drive|
|Hard disk drive||✓|
Some storage devices have volatile memory. Explain what is meant by the term volatile.
Volatile memory means that the contents of the memory are lost when power is turned off.
A veterinary surgery is going to install a new computer system. The vets must choose suitable hardware to use in their practice.
(a) Give three input devices that would be suitable for use in their practice.
(b) Give three output devices that would be suitable for use in their practice.
(c) Give two storage devices that would be suitable for use in their practice.
(a) Three suitable input devices for the veterinary surgery practice are:
- Barcode Scanner
(b) Three suitable output devices for the veterinary surgery practice are:
(c) Two suitable storage devices for the veterinary surgery practice are:
- Hard disk
- Pen drive