Progress Check 1
Match the following in Column I with those in Column II
|Column I||Column II|
|Feathery stigma hanging out||Rafflesia|
|Different timings for maturation of anthers and stigma||Entomophilous|
|Pollination by elephant||Wind-pollination|
|Flowers produce nectar||Dichogamy|
|Column I||Column II|
|Feathery stigma hanging out||Wind-pollination|
|Different timings for maturation of anthers and stigma||Dichogamy|
|Pollination by elephant||Rafflesia|
|Flowers produce nectar||Entomophilous|
Complete the following statements
- Pollination is the process of transfer of ............... .
- The two kinds of pollination are ............... and ............... .
- For self-pollination, the flowers need not be ............... and showy.
- For self-pollination,............... and ............... must mature at the same time.
- Self-pollination does not yield ...............varieties.
- In ............... pollination, there is much wastage of ............... .
- Pollination is the process of transfer of pollen grains.
- The two kinds of pollination are self pollination and cross pollination.
- For self-pollination, the flowers need not be fragrant and showy.
- For self-pollination, anther and stigma must mature at the same time.
- Self-pollination does not yield new varieties.
- In cross pollination, there is much wastage of pollen grains .
Progress Check 2
Mention if the following statement are true
- Intine is the outer wall of pollen grain.
- Pollen tube enters ovule through micropyle.
- Zygote gives rise to embryo.
- Ovule becomes fruit.
- Dry sepals may persist in some fruits.
Corrected Statement — Exine is the outer wall of pollen grain.
Corrected Statement — Ovule becomes seed.
Multiple Choice Type
Exine and intine are the parts of:
- Embryo sac
- Pollen grain
Reason — The outer wall of the pollen grain is known as exine and the inner wall is known as intine.
Which one of the following is one of the characteristics of self-pollinated flowers?
- Flowers are large and showy
- Flowers remain closed and do not open
- Stigma and anthers mature at the same time
- Pollen is produced in very large quantities
Stigma and anthers mature at the same time
Reason — Homogamy i.e., maturation of stigma and anthers at the same time is necessary for self-pollination.
The kind of pollination in which the pollen of the same flower fall on its stigma is termed as:
Reason — Autogamy refers to pollination in which the pollen grain is transferred from anther to stigma of the same flower.
Which of the following conditions favours self-pollination?
- None of these
Reason — In homogamy anther and stigma of a flower mature at same time, favouring self pollination.
Pollination by birds is termed as :
Reason — Ornithophily refers to pollination where pollinating agent are birds.
Which of the following is an example of an ornithophilous flower ?
Reason — Bignonia flower is pollinated by birds.
Bright, showy and nectar producing flowers are needed for pollination to occur by:
Reason — Bright, showy and nectar producing flowers attract insects.
The male inflorescence of maize plant is termed as:
Reason — Tassel is the male inflorescence of maize plant.
Wing and keel petals are found in the flowers of:
- Pea plants
- Maize plants
Reason — Wing and keel petals of pea plant help in pollination by insects.
Which of these does not belong to the embryo sac of a flower?
- Generative nucleus
- Antipodal cells
- Polar Nuclei
Reason — Embryo sac contains one egg cell, two synergids, three antipodal cells, one large central cell. Generative nucleus is present in pollen grain.
Very Short Answer Type
State the name of the chief pollinating agent against the corresponding plant by choosing from those given in brackets.
- Dahlia......(Crow, butterflies, mosquito).
- Maize.......(Bees, locusts, rain, wind).
- Vallisneria.........(Wind, water, ants, rabbits).
Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
- Transfer of pollen grains from anthers to stigma of the same flower is called ............... .
- Different timings for maturation of gynoecium and androecium, is called ............... .
- ............... is a water-pollinated flower.
- Transfer of pollen grains from anthers to stigma of the same flower is called autogamy.
- Different timings for maturation of gynoecium and androecium, is called dichogamy.
- Vallisneria is a water-pollinated flower.
Match the items in Column A with those in Column B.
|Column A||Column B|
|Generative nucleus||Pollen tube|
|Germ pore||Endosperm nucleus|
|Column A||Column B|
|Generative nucleus||Male nuclei|
|Germ pore||Pollen tube|
|Secondary nucleus||Endosperm nucleus|
Name of the parts of the ovary which give rise to:
- Fruit wall
- Ovarian wall
Give one word/term for the following:
- A flower containing both male and female parts.
- Arrangement of flowers on a twig/stem.
- When pollen grains of a flower reach the stigma of the same flower.
- When maturation time of reproductive parts in a flower is different.
- When stigma and anthers do not grow up to same height, which favours only cross pollination.
- Pollination of flowers by insects.
- Pollination of flowers by birds.
Short Answer Type
Explain the following terms:
- Artificial pollination
The process of pollination affected by birds is known as Ornithophily.
The process of pollination affected by elephants is known as Elephophily.
The process of pollination affected by men through artificial modes is referred to as Artificial pollination.
- Pollination is the process of transfer of pollen grain from the anther to stigma.
- Herkogamy is the condition of flower favouring cross pollination, in which a structural barrier around the stigma prevents self pollination.
- Cleistogamy is a condition favouring self pollination, in which the flower remains closed even at maturity of anther and stigma.
- Emasculation is the process of removal of anther in young flower for ensuring artificial pollination.
- The process of fusion or union of the nuclei of male and female gametes is called fertilisation.
What happens to the following after fertilization?
- Ovules — Ovules become the seed post fertilization.
- Calyx — After fertilization, the calyx sheds or falls off or remains intact in a shriveled and dried form.
- Petals — Post fertilization, the petals shed and fall.
- Stamens — Once fertilization takes place, the stamens fall off.
Mention any two contrivances in flowers which favour cross-pollination.
Contrivances in flowers which favour cross-pollination:
Different timings of maturation of androecium and gynoecium
Long Answer Type
Distinguish between the following pairs:
(a) Autogamy and Geitonogamy
(b) Homogamy and Dichogamy
(c) Protandry and Protogyny
(d) Entomophilous and Anemophilous flowers
(e) Advantages of self and cross-pollination
(a) Difference between Autogamy and Geitonogamy:
|It refers to transfer of pollen grain from anther to stigma of the same flower.||It refers to transfer of pollen grain from anther of one flower to stigma of another flower of the same plant.|
(b) Difference between Homogamy and Dichogamy:
|Maturity of anther and stigma of a flower at same time to ensure self pollination.||Maturity of anther and stigma of a flower at different times to ensure cross pollination.|
(c) Difference between Protandry and Protogyny:
|Anthers of the flower matures earlier than the stigma.||Stigma of the flower matures earlier than the anthers.|
(d) Difference between Entomophilous and Anemophilous flowers:
|Entomophilous flowers||Anemophilous flowers|
|Flowers that are pollinated by insects are called entomophilous flowers.||Flowers that are pollinated by winds are called anemophilous flowers.|
|Flowers are showy.||Flowers are not showy.|
|Pollen is produced in limited amount.||Very large quantity of pollen is produced.|
|Pollen grains are sticky or spiny.||Pollen grains are light dry and smooth.|
(e) Difference between advantages of self and cross-pollination:
|Advantages of Self-pollination||Advantages of Cross-pollination|
|Parental characters are preserved indefinitely.||There are variations in character leading to production of new varieties.|
|It is much surer in bisexual flowers where stamens and carpels mature at the same time.||The seeds produced are abundant and viable.|
|There is no wastage of pollen grains.||Offsprings are healthier and can adapt to environmental changes.|
What are the advantages of the following in the flower to the plant concerned?
- Long and feathery stigma
- Brightly coloured petals
- Smooth and light pollen
- Protruding and easily movable anthers
- Fragrant nectar
Long and feathery stigma — Help to trap pollen grains in wind-pollination.
Brightly coloured petals — Attracting insects for cross-pollination.
Smooth and light pollen — Easily carried by wind to enable cross-pollination.
Protruding and easily movable anthers — Even slightest wind can move them.
Fragrant nectar — Attracting insects for pollination.
Describe the advantages and disadvantages of cross-pollination to the plant.
Advantages of cross-pollination:
The offspring are healthier.
The seeds produced are abundant and viable.
New varieties may be produced by cross-pollinating two different varieties of the same species.
Disadvantages of cross-pollination:
Pollination is not always certain.
The pollen has to be produced in large quantity.
The process is uneconomical for the plant because the flowers have to be large, coloured, scented and have to produce nectar for attracting pollinating agents.
What is the function of the pollen tube? Explain it with the help of a diagram.
The pollen tube grows out of the pollen grains by breaking through its exine. The pollen tube grows through the stigma and style by dissolving these tissues with the help of enzymes and reaches the ovary, where it enters the ovule through a minute pore called the micropyle.
Structured / Application / Skill Type
The figure shown below represents a process in flowers. Study the same and answer the following questions.
(a) Name and define the process.
(b) Write the technical term of the above mentioned process.
(c) Give two examples of plants in which this process occurs.
(d) Write one advantage and one disadvantage of the process shown.
(e) Name two agents that participate in this process.
(a) The process is Cross-Pollination. It is defined as the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers of one flower to stigma of another flower of a different plant of the same species.
(c) Oxalis, Hibiscus
(d) Advantage — The offsprings are healthier and can adapt to environmental changes.
Disadvantage — The pollination is not always certain because some pollinating agent is always needed which may or may not be available at the proper time.
(e) Insects, Wind
Given alongside is a diagrammatic sketch of the sectional view of a germinating pollen grain. Study the same and then answer the questions that follow:
(a) Name the parts labelled 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
(b) Where does the germination of the pollen grain take place and how?
(c) What is the function of the part labelled '4'?
(d) What happens to the part labelled '5' during the process?
(a) The parts labelled 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are:
- 1 → Exine
- 2 → Intine
- 3 → Pollen tube
- 4 → Tube nucleus
- 5 → Generative nucleus
(b) Germination of the pollen grain takes place only after it falls on the stigma of the same plant species. The pollen grain is stimulated to germinate due to the secretion of sugars by the stigma.
(c) The function of part '4' (tube nucleus) is to direct the growth of the pollen tube towards the ovary.
(d) During germination of the pollen grain, part '5' (generative nucleus) present at the tip of the pollen tube divides into two sperm nuclei. The pollen tube enters one of the synergids and releases its two sperm nuclei. Of these, one sperm nucleus enters the egg cell and fuses with its nucleus, while the other sperm nucleus moves towards the two polar nuclei in the central cell and fuses with them.
Given below is a diagrammatic representation of the process of fertilization. Study the same and then answer the questions that follow:
(a) Name the parts labelled 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.
(b) What happens to (i) Ovary (ii) Ovule after fertilization?
(c) What is the function of the synergids?
(d) What part does the stigma play in the process of fertilization?
(a) The parts labelled 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are:
- 1 → Style
- 2 → Pollen tube
- 3 → Polar nuclei
- 4 → Embryo sac
- 5 → Antipodal cells
- 6 → Micropyle
(b) After fertilization, the ovary enlarges to form the fruit and the ovarian wall forms the fruit wall. The ovule becomes the seed.
(c) Synergid cells are two small, specialized cells found in the embryo sac adjacent to the egg cells in the female gametophyte of a flowering plant. It nourishes the ovum and plays an important role in guiding the pollen tube. These structures are key for cessation of pollen tube growth and in the release of the sperm cells.
(d) Pollen grain is transferred to the stigma during pollination. Germination of pollen grain takes place only if it falls on the stigma. After germination, the pollen tube grows through the stigma and reaches the ovary for the fertilization of the egg cell.