Progress Check 1
Give one example of each of the following:
- Germ-killing body secretion
- Germ-trapping body secretion
- Mechanical barrier that prevents the entry of germs into the body
- Skin (Keratin layer)
Mention if the following statements are True or False
- Immune system deals with the germs after they have entered the body.
- Antibodies eat up the germs.
- Human beings can suffer from all those diseases which attack dogs.
- Anti-venin injection against snake bite is an example of artificially acquired passive immunity.
- Mother’s antibodies may reach the foetus through placenta.
- A person having once suffered from measles usually gets repeated attacks.
Corrected Statement— Antibodies react with germs.
Corrected Statement— Human beings do not suffer from all those diseases which attack dogs.
Corrected Statement— A person having once suffered from measles usually do not gets repeated attacks (due to immunity as a result of previous infection).
Progress Check 2
Define the term prophylaxis.
Prophylaxis refers to the preventive or protective measures taken to prevent the occurrence or spread of a disease. It involves the use of various interventions, such as vaccines, medications, hygiene practices, lifestyle changes, or other strategies, to reduce the risk of developing a particular illness or to minimize its impact.
Name the four categories of materials used for preparing vaccine.
- Killed germs
- Living weakened germs
- Living fully poisonous germs
Name the diseases prevented by:
- Salk's vaccine
- BCG vaccine
- DPT vaccine
- Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus
Progress Check 3
Correct the following statements if they are false (without changing the first word).
- DDT is an antiseptic.
- Penicillin is a disinfectant.
- Disinfectants are applied on the body.
- Deodorants are both antiseptic as well as disinfectant.
- Alexander Fleming discovered the first sulphonamide.
- Antibiotics cannot be made synthetically.
- Sulphonamides are now rarely used.
- DDT is a disinfectant.
- Penicillin is an antibiotic.
- Disinfectants are applied on the places where germs thrive.
- Deodorants are neither antiseptic nor disinfectant.
- Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic.
- Antibiotics can be made synthetically.
- Sulphonamides are now rarely used.
List any three uses of antibiotics.
Three uses of antibiotics are:
- To fight infections
- As food preservatives
- Treating animal feed
Multiple Choice Type
- an antiseptic
- a disinfectant
- an antibiotic
- an anti-toxin
Reason — Penicillin is an antibiotic which was first extracted from Penicillium notatum.
Which of the following immunity is present from our birth?
- Innate immunity
- Active immunity
- Passive immunity
- Acquired immunity
Reason — Innate immunity is the inborn or natural immunity present in the body.
Naturally acquired active immunity would be most likely acquired through which of the following processes?
- drinking colostrum
- natural birth
- previous infection with a disease-causing organism
previous infection with a disease-causing organism
Reason — In case of infection in the body, there is formation of antibodies to fight the infection. These antibodies remain in the body for few years providing naturally acquired active immunity.
DPT stands for:
- Diphtheria, Polio and Tetanus
- Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus
- Dysentery, Polio and Typhoid
- Diphtheria, Polio and Typhoid
Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus
Reason — DPT is the vaccine of these three diseases-Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus.
- An extract of toxins secreted by bacteria.
- An extract of dead and weakened microbes.
- Strong chemicals obtained from fungi.
- Chemicals that are applied on the skin to kill bacteria
An extract of dead and weakened microbes.
Reason — Vaccines are an extract of dead and weakened microbes which when injected into the body lead to formation of corresponding antibody.
The letter "B" in the name BCG vaccination stands for:
Reason — BCG stands for Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin.
The body's defense against diseases is termed as:
- None of these
Reason — Immunity is the ability of body to fight infections.
The slimy secretion of the epithelial lining of the various organs is called:
- Both (i) & (ii)
Reason — The slimy secretion of the epithelial lining of the various organs is called mucus. It traps bacteria.
Which of the following is not a germ-killing secretion?
Reason — Saliva, Tears and Sweat are germ-killing secretion.
Antibody is a blood serum protein produced in response to:
Reason — Antibody is formed in our body in response to foreign antigen.
Very Short Answer Type
Name the following:
(a) The drug based on arsenic compound, produced in 1910 which killed germs of syphilis.
(b) The antibiotic that was discovered first.
(c) The category of immunity required in the treatment of snake-bite.
(d) The medicines made by the combination of penicillin and sulpha drugs.
(e) The scientist who discovered the first antibiotic.
(c) Passive acquired immunity
(e) Alexander Fleming
Write the full forms of the following abbreviations:
(a) AIDS — Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
(b) BCG — Bacillus Calmette Guerin
(c) DPT — Diphtheria Pertussis and Tetanus vaccine
(d) DDT — Dichloro Diphenyle Trichloro-ethane
(e) WHO — World Health Organization
(f) HIV — Human Immunodeficiency Virus
(g) STD — Sexually Transmitted Disease
(h) WBC — White Blood Cell
(i) TAB — Typhoid Paratyphoid A & B
(j) COVID-19 — Corona Virus Disease 2019
(a) Five antiseptics
(b) Five disinfectants
(c) Two antibiotics
(d) Two sulpha drugs
(e) Two sexually transmitted diseases
(a) Lysol, Carbolic acid, Iodine, Benzoic acid and Boric acid.
(b) Cresol, Phenol, Lysol, Lime and 40% Formalin.
(c) Penicillin and Streptomycin.
(d) Sulphadiazine and Sulphanilamide.
(e) Gonorrhea and Syphilis.
Short Answer Type
Define the terms:
(a) Immunity is the resistance to the onset of a disease after infection by harmful germs.
(b) Antibodies are special types of proteins that are present in our body or are formed in response to any infection or toxin.
(c) Prophylaxis is the prevention of disease through vaccines, medications, hygiene practices, lifestyle changes, and other strategies to reduce the risk and impact of illness.
(d) Vaccine is a biological formulation that consist of dead or weakened disease causing organism that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease.
(e) Developing resistance to disease-producing germs or their toxins by introducing killed germs or germ substances to induce the production of specific antibodies.
Correct the following statements by changing the first/last word only:
(a) Lysol is an antibiotic.
(b) The treatment of diseases by the use of chemical substances is known as allopathy.
(c) RBCs are germ-fighting cells of our body.
(d) Antiseptics are the proteins that belong to the class of immunoglobulins.
(e) BCG vaccines are given to small babies orally.
(a) Lysol is an antiseptic.
(b) The treatment of diseases by the use of chemical substances is known as chemotherapy.
(c) WBCs are germ-fighting cells of our body.
(d) Antibodies are the proteins that belong to the class of immunoglobulins.
(e) BCG vaccines are given to small babies intra-dermal.
Given below is a table of certain vaccines, the diseases against which they are used and the nature of vaccine. Fill up the gaps 1 – 10.
|Vaccine||Disease(s)||The nature of vaccine|
|TAB||1. __________||2. __________|
|Salk’s vaccine||3. __________||4. __________|
|BCG||5. __________||Living weakened germs|
|Vaccine for measles||Measles||6. __________|
|Cowpox virus||7. __________||8. __________|
|Toxoids||9. __________ and|
secreted by bacteria
|Vaccine||Disease(s)||The nature of vaccine|
|TAB||1. Typhoid||2. Killed germs|
|Salk’s vaccine||3. Poliomyelitis||4. Killed germs|
|BCG||5. Tuberculosis||Living weakened germs|
|Vaccine for measles||Measles||6. Living weakened germs|
|Cowpox virus||7. Small pox||8. Living fully poisonous germs|
|Toxoids||9. Diphtheria and|
secreted by bacteria
Given below is a scheme of classifying immunity against human diseases. Fill up the types of immunity in the blanks 1-9
- 1 → Innate Immunity
- 2 → Acquired Immunity
- 3 → Specific Immunity
- 4 → Active acquired Immunity
- 5 → Passive acquired Immunity
- 6 → Natural acquired active Immunity
- 7 → Artificial acquired active Immunity
- 8 → Natural acquired passive Immunity
- 9 → Artificial acquired passive Immunity
Choose the odd one out and write the category for the remaining terms.
(a) Carbolic acid, Formalin, Benzoic acid, Boric acid
(b) Mercurochrome, Cresol, Phenol, Bordeaux mixture
(c) ATP, DPT, BCG, TAB
(d) Saliva, Sweat, Skin, Tears
(e) Chloromycetin, Streptomyces, Streptomycin, Aureomycin
(a) Odd one out— Formalin (disinfectant)
Carbolic acid, Benzoic acid, Boric acid — antiseptic
(b) Odd one out— Mercurochrome (antiseptic)
Cresol, Phenol, Bordeaux mixture — disinfectant
(c) Odd one out— ATP (energy providing compound formed during respiration)
DPT, BCG, TAB — Vaccine
(d) Odd one out— Skin
Saliva, Sweat, Tears — germ killing secretions
(e) Odd one out— Streptomyces (bacterium)
Chloromycetin, Streptomycin, Aureomycin — antibiotics
List any four ways in which the antibiotics are being used.
Four applications of antibiotics:
- Antibiotics have a wide use in medicine to fight infections.
- Certain antibiotics are used as food preservatives, specially fresh meat and fish.
- Some antibiotics are used in treating animal feed to prevent internal infection.
- Some antibiotics are used for controlling plant pathogens.
List the merits of local defence system.
Merits of local defence system are:
- Local defence systems start working instantaneously.
- These systems are not dependent on previous exposure to infections.
- They are effective against a wide range of potentially infectious agents.
Long Answer Type
(a) Antiseptic and antibiotic
(b) Antiseptic and disinfectant
(c) Disinfectant and deodorant
(d) Vaccination and sterilization
(e) Active Immunity and passive immunity
(f) Innate immunity and acquired immunity
(a) Antiseptic and Antibiotic
|It is a mild chemical substance applied to the body to kill germs.||It is a chemical substance produced by the microbes which kills or hinders the growth of microbes.|
(b) Antiseptic and Disinfectant
|These are mild chemical substances which, when applied on the body, kill germs. These substances cause no harm to the skin and body.||These are strong chemical substances that are applied on spots and places where germs thrive and multiply.|
(c) Disinfectant and Deodorant
|These are strong chemical substances that are applied on spots and places where germs thrive and multiply.||They are neither antiseptics nor disinfectants. They are used to mask bad smell and are aerosols.|
(d) Vaccination and Sterilization
|It is the practice of artificially introducing the germs or the germ substance into the body for developing resistance to particular diseases.||Process of elimination of microbes from a surface contained in a fluid, in compound such as biological culture media or in medication.|
(e) Active immunity and Passive immunity
|Active Immunity||Passive Immunity|
|Developed by an individual due to a previous infection or antigen which naturally enters the body.||Immunity provided to an individual from an outside source as readymade antibodies.|
(f) Innate immunity and Acquired immunity
|Innate Immunity||Acquired Immunity|
|It is the immunity by the virtue of genetic constitutional makeup, i.e. it is inherited from parents. It is present in the body without any external stimulation or a previous infection.||It is the resistance to a disease the body acquires in his lifetime.|
The principle of vaccination is to produce immunity against a disease. Explain.
- Vaccination is artificially introducing germs or its substances in the body in order to develop resistance to a particular disease.
- This practice is scientifically referred to as prophylaxis and the material being introduced into the body is called the vaccine.
- The vaccine or germ substance is introduced into the body usually by injection or orally sometimes.
- Inside the body, the vaccine stimulates lymphocytes to produce antibodies against the germs for that particular disease.
- Antibodies are an integral part of our immunity. Their function is to destroy the unwanted particles which enter the body.
- Vaccines give our immunity a signal to synthesize particular antibodies therefore the principal of vaccination is to provide immunity against a disease.
"Abnormally, large number of WBCs in the blood are usually an indication of some infection in our body". Comment on the statement.
Whenever a germ or infection invades the body, the immune system receives a signal to synthesize particular antibodies. In response to the quantity of germ-multiplication in the body, white blood cells multiply rapidly which enables it to produce more antibodies thereby stopping the infection on time. Consequently, abnormal numbers of WBCs are an indication of some infection in the body.
Explain briefly, the role of the following health aids:
(a) Antiseptics — Antiseptics are mild chemical substance applied to the body to prevent its growth and kill germs. Example – Iodine and Lysol
(b) Disinfectants — These are the chemicals that kill microbes once they come in contact with them, they are too strong to be used on the body. Example – Phenol and Cresol
(c) Vaccines — They are the substances that are administered in the body to provide passive immunity. These are the materials that are germs or secreted by germs. Example – DTP, OPV
Suppose a person develops the disease diphtheria. Comment upon the principle of the treatment he should receive.
Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infectious disease. It leads to cold, cough, sneeze, if left untreated in severe cases, it may lead to paralysis or heart failure.
Treatment includes a combination of medications and supportive care. The most important step is prompt intravenous administration of diphtheria toxoid which is made harmless. The harmless toxoid once administered in a patient's body triggers the production of antibodies against the pathogens causing diphtheria.
Why is it important to know how the germs leave the body of a patient?
It important to know how the germs leave the body of a patient as there are some diseases and infections which are transmitted through air, water or just by direct contact. Therefore, to take precautions and protect others from further infections, it is must to know how the germs move out of the body of a patient.
Structured / Application / Skill Type
The figures A, B and C given below represent a kind of protective method in our body. Study the same and answer the following question:
(a) Name and define the process which occurs in figure A.
(b) What kind of blood vessel is shown in figure-A? Write its one specific structural feature.
(c) Name and define the process occurring in figure-B.
(d) What kind of blood cell is shown in the figures? Write its technical name also.
(e) Name the specific type of cell containing a 4 lobed nucleus of the category answered by you in part (4) above.
(a) The process is Diapedesis. It is defined as the squeezing of WBCs through the wall of capillaries into the tissues.
(b) Capillary wall. It is thin and semi-permeable.
(c) The process is Phagocytosis. It is the process in which WBCs engulf particle-like solid substances, especially bacteria.
(d) White Blood Cell (WBC), Leucocyte.