Name the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution.
Dr. B R Ambedkar. was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution.
When did the Constitution of India come into force?
26th January 1950
Name the Fundamental Right that prohibits 'forced labour'.
Right Against Exploitation
What is meant by the term 'Single Citizenship'?
The term 'Single Citizenship' means that a citizen will have citizenship of the country only and not of the state to which he/she belongs.
State the meaning of the term 'Directive Principles of State Policy'.
The 'Directive Principles of State Policy' are the guidelines to be followed by the government in the governance of the country. The government has to take them into consideration while making laws.
Mention any one point of difference between 'Direct' and 'Indirect' elections.
In direct elections, people vote directly for their representatives whereas in indirect elections, people elect their representatives indirectly through their elected representatives.
What is the term of office of the Chief Election Commissioner?
Mention any one Fundamental Duty as given in the Indian Constitution.
To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
Mention any one function of the Zila Parishad.
Zila Parishad supervises the working of panchayats.
Name the elected head of a Municipal Corporation.
State any two ways in which the script of the Indus Valley Civilization provides us with valuable historical information.
Two ways in which the script of the Indus Valley Civilization provides us with valuable historical information are:
- The Indus script indicates that the script was pictographic as it uses signs of birds, fishes and humans.
- Although not yet deciphered, the script is found inscribed on a number of seals, copper tools, rims of jar, copper and terracotta tablets, jewellery and on an ancient signboard. This indicates that the Harappan civilisation was an advanced urban civilisation.
Name the Epics written during the Later Vedic Period.
The Epics written during the Later Vedic Period are:
Who were the founders of Jainism and Buddhism?
Mahavira was the founder of Jainism and Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism.
List any two sources of information about the Mauryan Empire.
Two sources of information about the Mauryan Empire are:
- Arthashastra of Kautilya
What are Megaliths?
The Megaliths are box-like structures erected with the stone slabs, resting on each other without any mortar. Sometimes there was an opening cut into one of the sides. Some megaliths are seen on surface while some are underground with stone circles or boulders placed on surface to serve as signpost to find the burial site.
Mention any two works of Kalidasa.
Two works of Kalidas are:
State any two architectural features of Qutub Minar.
Two architectural features of Qutub Minar are:
- It has five storeys tapering as they ascend. Each storey is separated from the other by projecting balcony.
- The Minar is a circular tower about 13.8 metres in diameter at the base and tapers to the width of around 3 metres at the summit. It has a circular stairway of 379 steps leading to the top.
Mention any two reasons to state that the decline of Feudalism led to the rise of the Renaissance.
Two reasons to state that the decline of Feudalism led to the rise of the Renaissance are:
- The decline of Feudalism provided an impetus to free thinking.
- The peace and freedom that prevailed after the decline of feudalism favoured the growth of New learning.
What was known as the Letter of Indulgences?
A Letter of Indulgence was a pardon certificate issued to those, who paid money to the Church, for remitting punishments for their sins both in this life and after their death
Define the term Industrial Revolution.
The term Industrial Revolution denotes all those changes that took place in the field of industry during the second half of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century.
Part II (Section A)
With reference to the salient features of the Indian Constitution answer the following questions:
(a) Define the term 'Constitution'. State any two reasons for its significance.
(b) State any three freedoms given under the 'Right to Freedom'.
(c) Mention any two differences between the Fundamental Rights and Directive principles of State Policy.
(a) Constitution is a comprehensive document containing the set of rules that describe the right and duties of its citizens and the manner according to which the governance of a country is to be carried out. It regulates the position and powers of the three organs of the Government — the legislative, the executive and the judiciary; and states how they are inter-related.
Two reasons for its significance are:
- Smooth governance — It moderates relation between the government and the governed.
- Welfare of citizens — It protects the interests of the citizens by restraining the government from taking arbitrary decisions.
(b) Three freedoms given under the 'Right to Freedom' are:
- Freedom of speech and expression.
- Freedom to assemble peacefully without arms.
- Freedom to form associations and unions.
(c) Two differences between the Fundamental Rights and Directive principles of State Policy are:
|Sl. No.||Directive Principles||Fundamental Rights|
|1||They are provided in Part-IV of the constitution.||These are provided in Part-III of the constitution.|
|2||Directive Principles are not justiciable or enforceable by any court of law.||Fundamental Rights are justiciable. The citizens can seek protection from a High Court or Supreme Court in case of infringement.|
Elections play a very significant role in our Indian Democracy. In the light of this statement, answer the following questions:
(a) State the composition of the Election Commission.
(b) Under what circumstances can a 'By-election' be held?
(c) Explain the terms 'General Election' and 'Mid-term Election'.
(a) The Election Commission consists of three members — a chief Election Commissioner and two other Election Commissioners.
(b) When a seat held by any member of the Legislative Assembly in the Centre or State falls vacant on account of death or resignation of the member before completion of his/her term, to fill up this vacancy By-Election is held.
(c) General Election — The Elections held to elect the members of the Lok Sabha after expiry of the normal term of five years are called the General Elections.
Mid-Term Elections — This type of election is held when a State Legislative Assembly or the Lok Sabha is dissolved before the completion of its full term (5 years).
Local self-government in India is essential for building democracy from the grassroots. In this context, answer the following questions:
(a) State the three-tier system of the Panchayati Raj system.
(b) Give any three functions of a Municipal Committee.
(c) State any two functions of the following:
- Gram Panchayat
- Panchayat Samiti.
(a) The three-tier system of the Panchayati Raj system comprises the following:
- Gram Panchayats at village level.
- Panchayat Samiti at block level or middle level.
- Zila Parishad at District level.
(b) Three functions of a Municipal Committee are:
- Provision of public health services like provision of hospitals, dispensaries, family welfare centres.
- Maintenance and Updating of land record.
- Provision of civic amenities and execution of public works.
(i) Two functions of Gram Panchayat are:
- Sanitation, health, setting up of health centres and dispensaries.
- Upkeep of cremation and burial grounds.
(ii) Two functions of Panchayat Samiti are:
- To supervise and coordinate the working of Gram Panchayats.
- To provide hospital and health services with various facilities at community block level.
Part II (Section B)
With reference to Bhakti Movement, Sufism and Christianity, answer the following questions:
(a) Mention the teachings of Kabir as mentioned in the Bijak.
(b) State the significance of Sufism on Indian society.
(c) State any two contributions of Saint Francis Xavier in the advancement of Christianity in India.
(a) The teachings of Kabir as mentioned in the Bijak are:
- There is only one God. He may be worshipped under many names.
- Devotion to God and good actions are the only means of salvation.
- One must be free from dishonesty, insincerity and hypocrisy to reach God.
- All men are equal before God.
- There are no caste distinction and no supremacy of the priestly class.
- He denounced idol worship and empty rituals.
(b) The significance of Sufism on Indian society:
- It fostered the feelings of Hindu-Muslim unity.
- Many principles of Sufism were similar to those of the Bhakti cult. It lead to the popularity of the Bhakti movement.
- Sufism played a great role in promoting feelings of tolerance among the rulers.
- People, irrespective of their religion, began to understand and appreciate others' faith.
- Sufism made its influence on the poets like Amir Khusro and Malik Mohammed Jayasi.
(c) Two contributions of Saint Francis Xavier in the advancement of Christianity in India are:
- He sent Missionaries to the principal centres of India to promote Christianity.
- He worked relentlessly for ten years in India and preached the essentials of Christianity. He brought out a manual of Grammar and a vocabulary which helped other Missionaries to learn the language of people of Malabar.
(a) State any three social changes that came about in the Later Vedic period in relation to the position of women.
(b) State any three occupations that existed during the Vedic Age.
(c) Mention any two similarities in the teachings of Jainism and Buddhism.
(a) Three social changes that came about in the Later Vedic period in relation to the position of women are:
- Their participation in Yajnas was not considered necessary.
- They did not enjoy the right to property.
- The freedom to choose husbands by women was curtailed.
(b) Three occupations that existed during the Vedic Age are:
(c) Two similarities in the teachings of Jainism and Buddhism are:
- Both sought the attainment of salvation (moksha) from the cycle of birth and death.
- Both did not accept the Vedas.
Study the picture given below and answer the following questions:
(a) Identify the structure given in the picture.
Name the place and the state where it is located.
(b) Name the dynasty and the king who built it. In which century it was built.
(c) Mention any two architectural features of the structure.
(a) The structure given in the picture is Sanchi Stupa. It is located at Sanchi about 45 km from Bhopal, in Madhya Pradesh.
(b) It was built by King Ashoka of Mauryan Dynasty in 3rd century BC.
(c) Two architectural features of the structure are:
- It has semi-spherical solid dome like structure made of unburnt bricks and stones.
- Four gateways in four directions have carved panels depicting events from the life of Buddha.
With reference to the Modern Age in Europe, answer the following questions:
(a) How did the invention of the Printing Press lead to the rise of the Renaissance in Europe?
(b) State any three contributions of Martin Luther in reforming the Church in Europe.
(c) Mention any two differences between 'Capitalism' and 'Socialism'.
(a) In the Middle Ages, books were few and they were beyond the reach of the ordinary people. The Printing Press enabled Europe to multiply books and put them within the reach of people. Printing and distribution of books influenced people's attitude to life and brought about a new awakening in Europe and hence the rise of the Renaissance in Europe.
(b) The contribution of Martin Luther in reforming the church in Europe were following:
- Luther translated the Bible into German and set up an independent church.
- He traveled extensively to different parts of Europe, Germany, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The Protestant movement found wide acceptance.
- Lutheranism was recognised as a legal form of Christianity by a treaty known as 'The Peace of Augsburg' in 1555.
(c) Two differences between 'Capitalism' and 'Socialism' are:
|1||Capitalism refers to the economic system in which the means of production like labour, raw material, tools and machines are owned by private individuals or groups of them for profit.||Socialism refers to the economic system in which the government owns and controls the means of production (as factories) and distribution of goods.|
|2||In Capitalism production is for profit; useful goods and services are a by-product of pursuing profit.||In Socialism production is for use; useful goods and services are produced specifically for their usefulness.|
With reference to the impact of the Renaissance in the field of literature, Art and Science, state the contributions of:
(a) Leonardo da Vinci in the field of Art.
(b) William Shakespeare in the field of Literature.
(c) Copernicus in the field of Astronomy.
(a) Leonardo Da Vinci — Leonardo Da Vinci was a great painter, sculpture, musician and a scientist. Da Vinci's interests ranged far beyond fine arts. He studied nature, mechanics, anatomy, physics, architecture and weaponry. He saw science and art as complementary rather than distinct disciplines, and thought that ideas formulated in one realm could, and should, inform the other. He spent a great deal of time immersing himself in nature, testing scientific laws, dissecting bodies (human and animals) and thinking and writing about his observations. In the early 1490s, Da Vinci started documenting about four broad themes — painting, architecture, mechanics and human anatomy. He created thousands of pages of neatly drawn illustrations. His paintings of the 'Virgin of the Rocks', 'The Last Supper' and 'Mona Lisa' are great masterpieces of art.
(b) William Shakespeare — He was an english poet, playwright and actor who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English Language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the 'Bard of Avon'. He wrote 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems and a few other verses. His first plays were mostly historical dramas like Richard II, Henry VI and Henry V with the exception of Romeo and Juliet. In his early period, he wrote comedies like A Midsummer Night's Dream, Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It and Twelfth Night. After 1600, he wrote tragedies like Hamlet, King Lear, Othello and Macbeth. William Shakespeare's work transcends culture and history. He appeals to emotions and thoughts that are a part of eternal human nature and therefore, have a universal appeal.
(c) Copernicus — Nicolaus Copernicus was a mathematician and astronomer. He formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the centre of the universe. The publication of this model in his book 'De revolutionibus orbium celestium' (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), just before his death in 1543, is regarded as a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution. He introduced the Heliocentric theory. This also led to a series of discoveries by scientists like John Kepler, Galileo and Isaac Newton.