Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution?
- Dr. Rajendra Prasad
- Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
- Dr. Sachidananda Sinha
- Dr. H.C. Mukherjee
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
Which of the following Fundamental Rights prohibits Forced labour?
- Right Against Exploitation
- Right to Freedom
- Right to Equality
- Right to Constitutional Remedies
Right Against Exploitation
What is the term of office of the Chief Election Commissioner?
- Ten years
- Seven years
- Six years
- Five years
Which of the following is NOT a part of the three-tier Panchayati Raj system?
- Gram Panchayat
- Panchayat Samiti
- Zila Parishad
- Gram Samiti
Who is the elected head of the Municipal Corporation?
- Executive Officer
Which of the following is correct about the Directive Principles of State Policy?
- They are not enforceable by any court of law.
- They are meant to establish political democracy.
- They are restrictions on the state.
- They are privileges for the citizens to enjoy.
They are not enforceable by any court of law.
Which of the following was NOT a trading coastal town of the Indus Valley Civilisation?
The philosophical commentaries on the Vedas were called the
Early Vedic Age: Cattle, important source of wealth :: Later Vedic Age :
The Sutta Pitaka comprises of which of the following?
- Rules and regulations for monks
- Buddhist philosophy
- Life and teachings of Buddha
- Discourses of Buddha.
Discourses of Buddha
The landed aristocrats, who cultivated wetlands during the Sangam Age were called
Who among the following visited India during the reign of Chandragupta II?
- Hiuen Tsang
- None of the above.
Who was the founder of the Slave dynasty?
- Qutubuddin Aibak
- Muhammad Ghori
A new faith promulgated by Akbar was known as
Kabir : Bijak :: Namdev :
Which of the following was NOT a change associated with the Industrial Revolution?
- Production by machines
- Wages to the employees for their labour
- Large scale production of goods
- Domestic system of production.
Domestic system of production.
State any two ways in which the script of the Indus Valley Civilization provides us with valuable historical information.
Two ways in which the script of the Indus Valley Civilization provides us with valuable historical information are:
- The Indus script indicates that the script was pictographic as it uses signs of birds, fishes and humans.
- Although not yet deciphered, the script is found inscribed on a number of seals, copper tools, rims of jar, copper and terracotta tablets, jewellery and on an ancient signboard. This indicates that the Harappan civilisation was an advanced urban civilisation.
Name the Epics written during the Later Vedic Period.
The Epics written during the Later Vedic Period are:
List any two sources of information about the Mauryan Empire.
Two sources of information about the Mauryan Empire are:
- Arthashastra of Kautilya
What are Megaliths?
The Megaliths are box-like structures erected with the stone slabs, resting on each other without any mortar. Sometimes there was an opening cut into one of the sides. Some megaliths are seen on surface while some are underground with stone circles or boulders placed on surface to serve as signpost to find the burial site.
State any two architectural features of Qutub Minar.
Two architectural features of Qutub Minar are:
- It has five storeys tapering as they ascend. Each storey is separated from the other by projecting balcony.
- The Minar is a circular tower about 13.8 metres in diameter at the base and tapers to the width of around 3 metres at the summit. It has a circular stairway of 379 steps leading to the top.
Mention any two reasons to state that the decline of Feudalism led to the rise of the Renaissance.
Two reasons to state that the decline of Feudalism led to the rise of the Renaissance are:
- The decline of Feudalism provided an impetus to free thinking.
- The peace and freedom that prevailed after the decline of feudalism favoured the growth of New learning.
Define the term Industrial Revolution.
The term Industrial Revolution denotes all those changes that took place in the field of industry during the second half of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century.
Part II (Section A)
With reference to the salient features of the Indian Constitution answer the following questions:
(i) Define the term 'Constitution'. State any two reasons for its significance.
(ii) State any three freedoms given under the 'Right to Freedom'.
(iii) Mention any two differences between the Fundamental Rights and Directive principles of State Policy.
(i) Constitution is a comprehensive document containing the set of rules that describe the right and duties of its citizens and the manner according to which the governance of a country is to be carried out. It regulates the position and powers of the three organs of the Government — the legislative, the executive and the judiciary; and states how they are inter-related.
Two reasons for its significance are:
- Smooth governance — It moderates relation between the government and the governed.
- Welfare of citizens — It protects the interests of the citizens by restraining the government from taking arbitrary decisions.
(ii) Three freedoms given under the 'Right to Freedom' are:
- Freedom of speech and expression.
- Freedom to assemble peacefully without arms.
- Freedom to form associations and unions.
(iii) Two differences between the Fundamental Rights and Directive principles of State Policy are:
|Sl. No.||Directive Principles||Fundamental Rights|
|1||They are provided in Part-IV of the constitution.||These are provided in Part-III of the constitution.|
|2||Directive Principles are not justiciable or enforceable by any court of law.||Fundamental Rights are justiciable. The citizens can seek protection from a High Court or Supreme Court in case of infringement.|
Elections play a very significant role in our Indian Democracy. In the light of this statement, answer the following questions:
(i) State the composition of the Election Commission.
(ii) Under what circumstances can a 'By-election' be held?
(iii) Explain the terms 'General Election' and 'Mid-term Election'.
(i) The Election Commission consists of three members — a chief Election Commissioner and two other Election Commissioners.
(ii) When a seat held by any member of the Legislative Assembly in the Centre or State falls vacant on account of death or resignation of the member before completion of his/her term, to fill up this vacancy By-Election is held.
(iii) General Election — The Elections held to elect the members of the Lok Sabha after expiry of the normal term of five years are called the General Elections.
Mid-Term Elections — This type of election is held when a State Legislative Assembly or the Lok Sabha is dissolved before the completion of its full term (5 years).
Local self-government in India is essential for building democracy from the grassroots. In this context, answer the following questions:
(i) State the three-tier system of the Panchayati Raj system.
(ii) Give any three functions of a Municipal Committee.
(iii) State any two functions of the following:
- Gram Panchayat
- Panchayat Samiti.
(i) The three-tier system of the Panchayati Raj system comprises the following:
- Gram Panchayats at village level.
- Panchayat Samiti at block level or middle level.
- Zila Parishad at District level.
(ii) Three functions of a Municipal Committee are:
- Provision of public health services like provision of hospitals, dispensaries, family welfare centres.
- Maintenance and Updating of land record.
- Provision of civic amenities and execution of public works.
(i) Two functions of Gram Panchayat are:
- Sanitation, health, setting up of health centres and dispensaries.
- Upkeep of cremation and burial grounds.
(ii) Two functions of Panchayat Samiti are:
- To supervise and coordinate the working of Gram Panchayats.
- To provide hospital and health services with various facilities at community block level.
Part II (Section B)
With reference to Bhakti Movement, Sufism and Christianity, answer the following questions:
(i) Mention the teachings of Kabir as mentioned in the Bijak.
(ii) State the significance of Sufism on Indian society.
(iii) State any two contributions of Saint Francis Xavier in the advancement of Christianity in India.
(i) The teachings of Kabir as mentioned in the Bijak are:
- There is only one God. He may be worshipped under many names.
- Devotion to God and good actions are the only means of salvation.
- One must be free from dishonesty, insincerity and hypocrisy to reach God.
- All men are equal before God.
- There are no caste distinction and no supremacy of the priestly class.
- He denounced idol worship and empty rituals.
(ii) The significance of Sufism on Indian society:
- It fostered the feelings of Hindu-Muslim unity.
- Many principles of Sufism were similar to those of the Bhakti cult. It lead to the popularity of the Bhakti movement.
- Sufism played a great role in promoting feelings of tolerance among the rulers.
- People, irrespective of their religion, began to understand and appreciate others' faith.
- Sufism made its influence on the poets like Amir Khusro and Malik Mohammed Jayasi.
(iii) Two contributions of Saint Francis Xavier in the advancement of Christianity in India are:
- He sent Missionaries to the principal centres of India to promote Christianity.
- He worked relentlessly for ten years in India and preached the essentials of Christianity. He brought out a manual of Grammar and a vocabulary which helped other Missionaries to learn the language of people of Malabar.
(i) State any three social changes that came about in the Later Vedic period in relation to the position of women.
(ii) State any three occupations that existed during the Vedic Age.
(iii) Mention any two similarities in the teachings of Jainism and Buddhism.
(i) Three social changes that came about in the Later Vedic period in relation to the position of women are:
- Their participation in Yajnas was not considered necessary.
- They did not enjoy the right to property.
- The freedom to choose husbands by women was curtailed.
(ii) Three occupations that existed during the Vedic Age are:
(iii) Two similarities in the teachings of Jainism and Buddhism are:
- Both sought the attainment of salvation (moksha) from the cycle of birth and death.
- Both did not accept the Vedas.
Study the picture given below and answer the following questions:
(i) Name the temple given in the picture. Who built this temple? Where is it located?
(ii) To which deity is the temple dedicated? Mention two special features of this temple.
(iii) What were the following features of temples known as?
- Audience Hall
(i) The temple given in the picture is Brihadeshwara temple. It was built by Chola king, Rajaraja I. It is located at Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu.
(ii) It is dedicated to Lord Shiva.
Two special features of this temple are:
- The massive tower or Vimana of 190 feet height and a huge dome of 25 feet, carved out of a single block of stone.
- A gigantic Shiva Lingam, cut in monolithic rock about 8.87 metres high.
(iii) Given features of temples were known as:
- Gateway - Gopuram
- Shrine - Garbhagriha
- Audience Hall - Mandapa
- Towers - Vimana.
With reference to the Modern Age in Europe, answer the following questions:
(i) How did the invention of the Printing Press lead to the rise of the Renaissance in Europe?
(ii) State any three contributions of Martin Luther in reforming the Church in Europe.
(iii) Mention any two differences between 'Capitalism' and 'Socialism'.
(i) In the Middle Ages, books were few and they were beyond the reach of the ordinary people. The Printing Press enabled Europe to multiply books and put them within the reach of people. Printing and distribution of books influenced people's attitude to life and brought about a new awakening in Europe and hence the rise of the Renaissance in Europe.
(ii) The contribution of Martin Luther in reforming the church in Europe were following:
- Luther translated the Bible into German and set up an independent church.
- He traveled extensively to different parts of Europe, Germany, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The Protestant movement found wide acceptance.
- Lutheranism was recognised as a legal form of Christianity by a treaty known as 'The Peace of Augsburg' in 1555.
(iii) Two differences between 'Capitalism' and 'Socialism' are:
|1||Capitalism refers to the economic system in which the means of production like labour, raw material, tools and machines are owned by private individuals or groups of them for profit.||Socialism refers to the economic system in which the government owns and controls the means of production (as factories) and distribution of goods.|
|2||In Capitalism production is for profit; useful goods and services are a by-product of pursuing profit.||In Socialism production is for use; useful goods and services are produced specifically for their usefulness.|
With reference to the impact of the Renaissance in the field of literature, Art and Science, state the contributions of:
(i) Leonardo da Vinci in the field of Art.
(ii) William Shakespeare in the field of Literature.
(iii) Copernicus in the field of Astronomy.
(i) Leonardo Da Vinci — Leonardo Da Vinci was a great painter, sculpture, musician and a scientist. Da Vinci's interests ranged far beyond fine arts. He studied nature, mechanics, anatomy, physics, architecture and weaponry. He saw science and art as complementary rather than distinct disciplines, and thought that ideas formulated in one realm could, and should, inform the other. He spent a great deal of time immersing himself in nature, testing scientific laws, dissecting bodies (human and animals) and thinking and writing about his observations. In the early 1490s, Da Vinci started documenting about four broad themes — painting, architecture, mechanics and human anatomy. He created thousands of pages of neatly drawn illustrations. His paintings of the 'Virgin of the Rocks', 'The Last Supper' and 'Mona Lisa' are great masterpieces of art.
(ii) William Shakespeare — He was an english poet, playwright and actor who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English Language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the 'Bard of Avon'. He wrote 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems and a few other verses. His first plays were mostly historical dramas like Richard II, Henry VI and Henry V with the exception of Romeo and Juliet. In his early period, he wrote comedies like A Midsummer Night's Dream, Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It and Twelfth Night. After 1600, he wrote tragedies like Hamlet, King Lear, Othello and Macbeth. William Shakespeare's work transcends culture and history. He appeals to emotions and thoughts that are a part of eternal human nature and therefore, have a universal appeal.
(iii) Copernicus — Nicolaus Copernicus was a mathematician and astronomer. He formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the centre of the universe. The publication of this model in his book 'De revolutionibus orbium celestium' (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), just before his death in 1543, is regarded as a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution. He introduced the Heliocentric theory. This also led to a series of discoveries by scientists like John Kepler, Galileo and Isaac Newton.