The modern era was heralded by
Name the system according to which the medieval European society was organised?
Which of the following is the correct order of hierarchy of medieval Europe?
- Dukes — Barons — Knight — peasants
- Barons — Earls — Feudal Lords — peasants
- Earls — Dukes — Knights — Barons
- Barons — Dukes — Knights — Lords
Dukes — Barons — Knight — peasants
Which of the following was NOT a result of the Fall of Constantinople?
- Discovery of new trade routes
- Decline of Feudalism
- Revival of learning
............... refer to the religious expeditionary wars with the goal of restoring the Church’s access to holy places in and near Jerusalem.
- Black wars
Which of the following are the features of Renaissance?
- Glorification of Human Form
- Spirit of Enquiry
- All of the above
All of the above
Where did the first Renaissance begin?
Which of the following is incorrect?
- Da Vinci :The Last Supper
- Donatello : Pieta
- Machiavelli : The Prince
- Shakespeare : King Lear
Donatello : Pieta
Who is known as the 'Bard of Avon'?
- Nicolaus Copernicus
- William Shakespeare
What was the Copernican Revolution?
- Proof that the earth revolves around the sun.
- Proof that the earth was the centre of the universe.
- Proof of close connection between medicine and chemists.
- Proof of circulatory movement of blood in the body.
Proof that the earth revolves around the sun.
Interest in man, his interests, his nature and his life on earth is referred to as
Which of the following are a consequence of Renaissance?
- Rise of Monarchy
- Rise of Nation States
- Rise of the Middle Class
- All of the above
All of the above
Short Answer Question
What is meant by the term 'Renaissance'?
The term 'Renaissance' means rebirth or revival. It stands for a complex transitional movement in Europe between medieval and modern times beginning in the 14th century in Italy and lasting into the 17th century.
Mention any two causes of the Renaissance.
Two causes of the Renaissance were:
- Capture of Constantinople — Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire fell into the hands of the Turks in 1453. This forced the Roman and Greek scholars to shift to Rome and other parts of Europe with their manuscripts. These genius scholars spread their new spirit and ideas, wherever they went paving the way for Renaissance.
- Decline of Feudalism — Decline of Feudalism in the 13th and 14th centuries provided an impetus to free thinking and favoured the growth of new learning. It led to new developments in the spheres of art, literature, philosophy and science and contributed to the rise of Renaissance.
What role did the victory of the Turks over Constantinople play in the rise Renaissance?
Constantinople was the capital of Eastern Roman Empire and centre of Greek and Roman cultures. It had valuable manuscripts of Greek and Roman writers. When it fell into the hands of the turks in 1453, the Roman and Greek scholars were forced to shift to Rome and other parts of Europe with their manuscripts. Rome then became the centre of Greek culture. These scholars were geniuses, men of liberal outlook, humanism and logical thinking. They spread their new spirit and ideas, wherever they went. In this way they revived the interest of the people in the study of Greek philosophy, science, art and literature. The revival of the learning of Greek classics paved the way for the Renaissance.
The decline of feudalism led to the rise of Renaissance. Give two reasons.
The two reasons for the rise of Renaissance with decline of feudalism were:
- The decline of feudalism provided an impetus to free thinking.
- The peace and freedom that prevailed after the decline of feudalism favoured the growth of New learning.
Mention any two factors that led to the growth of the spirit of enquiry among the people of Europe.
Two factors that led to the growth of the spirit of enquiry among the people of Europe were:
- Role of original thinkers — During the Medieval Age, the church discouraged original thinking but certain bold and independent thinkers who criticised the church and their dogmas, came up. They asked the people to developed their own thinking. Thinkers like Roger Bacon, Abelard, Thomas Aquinas revolutionised the thought process and laid stress on reasoning.
- Development of science — Certain medieval scholar showed a scientific attitude and asked their students to observe things in nature. This brought in many new inventions and discoveries. Development of science created the spirit of enquiry and scientific temper.
How did the invention of the printing press bring in a new awakening in Europe?
In the Middle Ages, books were few and they were beyond the reach of the ordinary people. The Printing Press enabled Europe to multiply books and put them within the reach of people. The printing press spread knowledge far and wide. Scholars found it easier to read printed books than hand-written manuscripts. Printing and distribution of books influenced people's attitude to life and brought about a new awakening in Europe.
Mention any two consequences of geographical explorations.
Two consequences of geographical explorations are:
- The geographical discoveries led to the establishment of trade between Europe and the East.
- They also paved the way for the process of colonisation of Asia and Africa.
Explain briefly the term 'Humanism'.
Humanism was regarded as the most remarkable phenomena of Renaissance. It was a product of the spread of education and learning. The word humanism was derived from the Latin words 'Studia humanitatis' (the studies of mankind). Basically it meant a decisive shift in concern for human as distinct from divine matters. Humanism extolled man and stressed his essential dignity. It was centred on the man of flesh and blood with all his earthly joys and sorrows. It opposed religious asceticism. It defended man's right to pleasure and the satisfaction of earthly desires and requirements.
Why did Renaissance begin in Italy? Give two reasons.
Renaissance began in Italy because of following reasons:
- Italy was the seat of the glorious Roman Empire and all the historical remains and relics of the Romans were found there. These attracted a number of scholars and artists.
- The enormous wealth which Italy had accumulated as a result of trade with the east also contributed to the rise of Renaissance. The wealthy merchants of Italy patronised the artists and literary figures and used their wealth for the revival of classical culture and literature.
Renaissance artists tried to depict life on canvas and stone. With reference to this statement, describe the progress in the art of painting.
The Renaissance painters established very high standards and produced some of the greatest paintings of the time. The artists of the Renaissance period refused to abide by medieval rules, tradition and adopted new artistic methods such as frescoes for wall pictures, oil colours and woodcuts. They studied optics and geometry and used their knowledge to develop perspective in their paintings. They also studied human anatomy to find the mechanism underlying gestures and expressions. They had a humanistic secular approach and produced highly artistic and life like paintings.
Mention the impact of the Renaissance in the field of English literature.
The most significant impact of Renaissance on literature was the use of local languages, instead of Latin as in the Middle Ages. Besides, there was a change of themes in the literary work. Earlier writers dwelt on spiritual themes including heaven. However, during Renaissance, the authors wrote on man and his problems. A number of english poets and dramatists of repute were produced in England. Some of the English writers of Renaissance period were Geoffrey Chaucer, Thomas More, Francis Bacon, William Shakespeare, etc.
Mention the theory introduced by Copernicus.
Copernicus introduced the Heliocentric theory. It was about the model of the Universe. His model of the universe placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the centre of the universe.
Many factors contributed to usher in the spirit of Renaissance, which had far-reaching consequences for the entire world. In this context, write short notes on:
(a) Invention of the printing press.
(b) Decline of Feudalism.
(c) Capture of Constantinople.
(a) Invention of the printing press — The first printing press was set up in Germany by Gutenberg in the middle of the 15th century. Later on Caxton introduced it in England. The invention of printing press in the middle of the 15th century in Europe made it possible to produce books in large numbers. The Bible and many other religious and classical books were printed and made available all over Europe. The printing press spread knowledge far and wide. Scholars found it easier to read printed books than hand-written manuscripts. In the Middle Ages, books were few and they were beyond the reach of the ordinary people. The Printing Press enabled Europe to multiply books and put them within the reach of people. Printing and distribution of books influenced people's attitude to life and brought about a new awakening in Europe.
(b) Decline of Feudalism — Feudalism was a system according to which the medieval European society was organised on the basis of land tenure. In this system, all the people, from the King down to the lowest land owners were bound together by obligation and defence. The King used to give estates to his lords (Dukes and Earls). The Lords, distributed a part of their land among the lesser lords (Barons), who provided them with military support. The Dukes and Earls owned allegiance directly to the king, whereas the Barons owed allegiance to Dukes and Earls. The Knights formed the lower category of feudal lords. The feudal lords did not cultivate their lands and gave it to the peasants for cultivation.
The society had a graded organisation in which there was hardly any chance for social mobility and progress. It was also opposed to freedom and equality of rights. Decline of Feudalism in the 13th and 14th centuries provided an impetus to free thinking. The peace and freedom that prevailed after the decline of feudalism favoured the growth of New Learning. It led to new developments in the spheres of art, literature, philosophy and science and contributed to the rise of Renaissance.
(c) Capture of Constantinople — Constantinople was the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire and was a centre of Greek and Roman cultures. It had valuable manuscripts of Greek and Roman writers. But Constantinople fell into hands of the Turks in 1453. Many Greek and Roman scholars were thus, forced to shift to Rome and other parts of Europe with their manuscripts. Rome then became the centre of Greek culture. These scholars were geniuses, men of liberal outlook, humanism and logical thinking. Wherever they went, they spread their new spirit and ideas. They revived the interest of people in the study of Greek philosophy, science, art and literature. The revival of the learning of Greek classics paved the way for the Renaissance.
Renaissance brought in a spirit of enquiry among the people of Europe. In this context, answer the following question:
(a) Explain briefly the role of original thinkers in promoting the spirit of enquiry among the people of Europe.
(b) How did the development of science create the spirit of enquiry?
(c) What was the role of Crusades in ushering in the spirit of enquiry?
(a) During the Medieval Age, the Church discouraged original thinking and called upon scholars to put faith in the Church dogmas. However, original thinking could not be suppressed for a long time and certain bold and independent thinkers criticised the Church and asked the people to develop their own thinking. They developed a spirit of enquiry and a sense of curiosity among the people. They taught human beings to know the Why and How of things. Thinkers like Roger Bacon, Abelard, Thomas Aquinas revolutionised the thought process and laid stress on reasoning.
(b) Certain medieval scholars showed a scientific attitude and asked their students to observe things in nature. This brought in many new inventions and discoveries. Development of science created the spirit of enquiry and scientific temper. Roger Bacon contemplated the use of horseless carriages and flying machines. Copernicus proved that the Earth moves around the Sun. Galileo invented the telescope. These inventions broadened the mental outlook of the people and put an end to the old beliefs and traditions.
(c) The Crusades were the religious expeditionary wars with the goal of restoring the Church's access to holy places in and near Jerusalem. They brought the people of Europe into direct contact with the people of Asia. The Crusades brought to Western Europe ideas from the East. It widened their outlook on life. People began to rely on reason rather than on blind faith.
Renaissance or rebirth brought about drastic changes in art, literature and science. In this context, wite short notes on the following:
(a) Leonardo Da Vinci
(b) William shakespeare
(a) Leonardo Da Vinci — Leonardo Da Vinci was a great painter, sculpture, musician and a scientist. Da Vinci's interests ranged far beyond fine arts. He studied nature, mechanics, anatomy, physics, architecture and weaponry. He saw science and art as complementary rather than distinct disciplines, and thought that ideas formulated in one realm could, and should, inform the other. He spent a great deal of time immersing himself in nature, testing scientific laws, dissecting bodies (human and animals) and thinking and writing about his observations. In the early 1490s, Da Vinci started documenting about four broad themes — painting, architecture, mechanics and human anatomy. He created thousands of pages of neatly drawn illustrations. His paintings of the 'Virgin of the Rocks', 'The Last Supper' and 'Mona Lisa' are great masterpieces of art.
(b) William Shakespeare — He was an english poet, playwright and actor who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English Language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the 'Bard of Avon'. He wrote 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems and a few other verses. His first plays were mostly historical dramas like Richard II, Henry VI and Henry V with the exception of Romeo and Juliet. In his early period, he wrote comedies like A Midsummer Night's Dream, Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It and Twelfth Night. After 1600, he wrote tragedies like Hamlet, King Lear, Othello and Macbeth. William Shakespeare's work transcends culture and history. He appeals to emotions and thoughts that are a part of eternal human nature and therefore, have a universal appeal.
(c) Copernicus — Nicolaus Copernicus was a mathematician and astronomer. He formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the centre of the universe. The publication of this model in his book 'De revolutionibus orbium celestium' (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), just before his death in 1543, is regarded as a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution. He introduced the Heliocentric theory. This also led to a series of discoveries by scientists like John Kepler, Galileo and Isaac Newton.
Study the picture given below and answer the following questions:
(a) Identify the painting and name the artist who made it. Name another famous painting by the same artist.
(b) Write a short note on the artist who made this painting.
(c) What changes occurred in the style of painting as a result of the Renaissance spirit in Europe?
(a) The given painting is 'The Last Supper' by Leonardo Da Vinci. 'Mona Lisa' is the other famous painting by him.
(b) Leonardo Da Vinci was a great painter, sculpture, musician and a scientist. Da Vinci's interests ranged far beyond fine arts. He studied nature, mechanics, anatomy, physics, architecture and weaponry. He refined his skills of painting and sculpture and trained in Mechanical arts under Andrea del Verrocchio. He saw science and art as complementary rather than distinct disciplines, and thought that ideas formulated in one realm could, and should, inform the other. He spent a great deal of time immersing himself in nature, testing scientific laws, dissecting bodies (human and animals) and thinking and writing about his observations. In the early 1490s, Da Vinci started documenting about four broad themes — painting, architecture, mechanics and human anatomy. He created thousands of pages of neatly drawn illustrations. His paintings of the 'Virgin of the Rocks', 'The Last Supper' and 'Mona Lisa' are great masterpieces of art.
(c) The artists of the Renaissance period refused to abide by medieval rules and tradition. They adopted new artistic methods such as frescoes for wall pictures, oil colours and woodcuts. They studied optics and geometry and used their knowledge to develop perspective in their paintings. They also studied human anatomy to find the mechanism underlying gestures and expressions. They were able to show their talent without being restricted by the rigid rules of the church. The Renaissance painters had a humanistic secular approach and produced highly artistic and life like paintings.
Imagine that you went to Rome during the period when the Renaissance movement was at its peak. Describe the spirit of Renaissance among the artists, scientists, authors and the masses.
If I were to visit Rome during the peak of the Renaissance movement, which spanned from the 14th to the 17th century, I would likely observe a vibrant intellectual and artistic scene that was characterized by a renewed interest in the classical cultures of ancient Greece and Rome. Here are some observations I might make about the spirit of the Renaissance among various groups:
Artists — The artists of the Renaissance were deeply inspired by the art and architecture of the classical world, and sought to emulate and improve upon these ancient models. They were also interested in creating more lifelike representations of the human form and the natural world, and developed new techniques for achieving these aims, such as frescoes for wall pictures, oil colours and woodcuts. They studied optics and geometry and used their knowledge to develop perspective in their paintings and sculptures. Visitors to Rome during this time would have seen works by some of the most famous Renaissance artists, such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Raphael, who were all active in the city at various points.
Scientists — Renaissance scientists were similarly interested in the classical world, but instead of focusing on art and architecture, they sought to revive and build upon the scientific knowledge of ancient Greece and Rome. They used the methods of enquiry, questioning, observation and experimentation. They made significant advancements in fields such as astronomy, mathematics, and anatomy, and their work laid the foundations for the scientific revolution that would come later.
Authors — Writers during the Renaissance were also deeply influenced by the classical world, and often sought to emulate the style and subject matter of ancient Greek and Roman literature. They also began to write in the vernacular languages of their own countries, rather than in Latin, which had been the dominant language of scholarly and literary writing for centuries. The themes of their writings shifted from spirituality and focused more on man and his problems. This gave birth to a new movement known as Humanism. I read the works by authors such as Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, and Giovanni Boccaccio, who were all active during the early Renaissance.
Masses — I witnessed significant cultural and social change for the broader population. The rise of printing, for example, made books and information more widely available than ever before, and new forms of art and entertainment, such as theater, became popular. The decline of the authority of Church and the feudal system strengthened the desire of the people to have peace, security and political stability. The middle class like the traders, soldiers, lawyers, etc. began to make rapid progress.
How, according to you, the spirit of enquiry has been an important factor in the growth and development of human civilisation? Give examples to support your answer.
The spirit of enquiry, or the human desire to know the Why and How of things, has been a driving force behind much of the growth and development of human civilization. Here are some examples of how this spirit of inquiry has played a critical role in human progress:
- Science and technology — The desire to understand the natural world and find practical solutions to problems has led to significant advances in science and technology. Some notable examples of scientific progress driven by the spirit of inquiry include the discovery of electricity, the invention of the steam engine, the invention of the telescope, the development of vaccines and antibiotics, etc.
- Philosophy and critical thinking — The spirit of inquiry has also played a critical role in the development of philosophy and critical thinking. Philosophers have asked fundamental questions about the nature of reality, ethics, and human existence, and their ideas have influenced everything from politics and law to art and literature. The development of critical thinking skills, such as the ability to analyze evidence, identify logical fallacies, and evaluate arguments, has also been essential for the growth of human civilization.
- Cultural and social progress — The spirit of inquiry has driven cultural and social progress as well. It has led to the development of new art forms, literature, and music, and has challenged traditional beliefs and values. For example, the Enlightenment of the 18th century was driven by a spirit of inquiry that challenged the authority of the church and state and promoted reason, science, and individual rights.
- Exploration and discovery — Finally, the spirit of inquiry has driven exploration and discovery throughout human history. Explorers and adventurers have sought to understand the world beyond their borders, leading to the discovery of new lands, cultures, and peoples. This spirit of inquiry has also driven the exploration of space, with humans setting foot on the moon and launching spacecraft to explore the far reaches of the solar system.
In each of these areas, the spirit of inquiry has played a critical role in driving human progress and development. It has allowed us to push the boundaries of our knowledge and understanding, and to continuously explore new frontiers of human possibility.
Do you think industrialisation would have been possible without Renaissance? Give reasons to support your answer.
No, I don't think industrialisation would have been possible without Renaissance. Renaissance was a critical period of intellectual and technological development that laid the foundations for many of the scientific and technological advancements that were necessary for industrialisation to occur.
The Renaissance saw significant advancements in fields such as metallurgy, printing, and shipbuilding, which were all critical to the development of industrial technologies. The development of new techniques for working with metals, such as the blast furnace and the Bessemer process, allowed for the production of large quantities of steel, which was essential for building machines, engines, and other industrial infrastructure. The printing press, developed during the Renaissance, made it possible to disseminate information and ideas on a massive scale, which was critical to the spread of knowledge and technological advancements. And the development of larger, more efficient ships, such as those designed by Leonardo da Vinci, made it possible to transport goods and people over longer distances, which was essential to the growth of global trade and commerce.
Without these advancements and innovations, it is unlikely that industrialisation would have been possible, as many of the technologies and infrastructure required for industrialisation would not have been available. Therefore, it can be said that the Renaissance was a necessary precursor to industrialisation, and that without the intellectual and technological developments of the Renaissance, industrialisation as we know it may not have been possible.
Compare and contrast the events in Europe with what was happening in India at that time.
The Renaissance period in Europe began in the 14th century and lasted till the 17th century. During this period, India saw the rule of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal empire. Both regions were marked by significant changes and developments during this period, which would have a lasting impact on their respective histories and cultures. A comparative study of the different aspects of each region's history and development is presented below:
- Political and Social Context — In Europe, the Renaissance was a period of significant political and social change, with the rise of powerful monarchies and the emergence of a new middle class. The Protestant Reformation, which began in the 16th century, also challenged the authority of the Catholic Church and led to significant religious and social disruption. In contrast, India during this time was witnessing a fusion of the Indian traditions with the Turkish culture which led to the emergence of a new composite culture incorporating the best elements of the two.
- Cultural and Intellectual Development — The Renaissance in Europe was characterized by a renewed interest in classical learning, art, and literature, and by the emergence of humanism, which emphasized the value of human reason and creativity. This led to significant advancements in fields such as science, mathematics, and philosophy. In contrast, India during the period saw the emergence of new literary forms, such as the development of Urdu poetry, the Bijak, Padavali. The Bhakti movement, Sufism and introduction of Christianity greatly influenced the culture, art and literature.
- Architecture — During the Renaissance period, European and Indian architecture witnessed significant transformation, but with notable differences. European architecture was characterized by the use of classical forms and motifs such as columns, arches, and domes. In contrast, Indian and Islamic architecture mingled to give rise to a new type of Indo-Islamic architecture characterised by spaciousness, massiveness, majesty and width. Some significant buildings built in Europe during the Renaissance period were St. Peter's Basilica, the Duomo of Florence and the Palace of Versailles. In India, magnificent monuments like Qutub Minar, Taj Mahal, Red fort were constructed during this period.
- Economic Development — Europe during the Renaissance saw significant economic growth and development, with the emergence of new industries and trade networks, and the development of the first modern banking and financial systems. In contrast, India during this period was characterized by a decline in trade and industry, as the country was increasingly dominated by European colonial powers.
- Scientific and Technological Advancements — The Renaissance in Europe saw significant advancements in science and technology, including the development of new scientific theories and the creation of new technologies such as the printing press, which allowed for the spread of knowledge and information on a mass scale. In contrast, India during this period saw relatively little scientific and technological development, although there were some significant advancements in fields such as mathematics and astronomy.