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Chapter 5

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Class 9 - NCERT Geography Contemporary India 1 Solutions

Choose the right answer

Question 1(i)

To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to?

  1. Tundra
  2. Tidal
  3. Himalayan
  4. Tropical Evergreen


Tropical Evergreen

Question 1(ii)

Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than

  1. 100 cm
  2. 50 cm
  3. 70 cm
  4. less than 50 cm


100 cm

Question 1(iii)

In which of the following state is the Simlipal bio-reserve located?

  1. Punjab
  2. Delhi
  3. Odisha
  4. West Bengal



Question 1(iv)

Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network of bioreserve?

  1. Manas
  2. Nilgiri
  3. Gulf of Mannar
  4. Panna



Answer the following questions briefly

Question 2(i)

What is a bio-reserve? Give two examples.


A natural area rich in flora and fauna, that preserves wildlife and landforms while allowing public use and enjoyment is called bio-reserve. Examples: Sunderbans and Nilgiri.

Question 2(ii)

Name two animals having habitat in tropical and montane type of vegetation.


Tropical type of vegetation: Elephant, Monkey

Montane type of vegetation: Spotted dear, Wild sheep

Answer the following questions

Question 3(i)

Distinguish between Flora and Fauna.


Differences between Flora and Fauna are:

Flora means the plants naturally occurring in a particular area or period.Fauna means the animals naturally living in a particular area or period.
Some examples of flora:
mosses, herbs, shrubs and trees etc.
Some examples of fauna:
birds, animals, fish, insects, etc.

Question 3(ii)

Distinguish between Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous forests.


Differences between Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous forests are:

Tropical Evergreen forestsDeciduous forests
They are found at places with rainfall more than 200 cm.They are found at places with rainfall between 200-70 cm.
Trees in tropical evergreen forests do not have a fixed time to shed their leaves.Tress in deciduous forests shed their leaves from six to eight weeks in dry summers.
They have long warm and wet climate and a very short dry period.They have six to eight weeks of dry summer.
Important trees are Mahogany, Ebony, Rubber and Cinchona.Important trees are Bamboo, Sal, Shisham and Khair.

Question 4

Name different types of Vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.


The major types of vegetation found in India are:

  1. Tropical Evergreen Forests
  2. Tropical Deciduous Forests
  3. Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
  4. Montane Forests
  5. Mangrove Forests

Vegetation of High Altitudes

  1. The vegetation of high altitudes is called montane forests. As temperature decreases with increasing altitude, it causes corresponding change in natural vegetation.
  2. The wet temperate type of forests are found between a height of 1000 and 2000 metres. Evergreen broad-leaf trees, such as oaks and chestnuts predominate.
  3. Between 1500 and 3000 metres, temperate forests containing coniferous trees, like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar, are found.
  4. At higher elevations, temperate grasslands are common.
  5. At high altitudes, generally, more than 3,600 metres above the sea level, temperate forests and grasslands give way to the Alpine vegetation. Silver fir, junipers, pines and birches are the common trees of these forests. However, they get progressively stunted as they approach the snow-line.
  6. Ultimately, through shrubs and scrubs, they merge into the Alpine grasslands. At higher altitudes, mosses and lichens form part of tundra vegetation.

Question 5

Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?


Plants and animals are endangered in India due to the following reasons:

  1. Hunting of animals for recreation and commercial purposes.
  2. Smuggling of animals often leading to their death.
  3. Pollution due to chemical and industrial waste, acid deposits.
  4. Introduction of alien species.
  5. Reckless cutting of the forests to bring land under cultivation and habitation.

Question 6

Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna?


India is a vast country with a variety of climatic regions. India has hot and dry desert, wet and warm tropical region, cold and dry lofty mountains, vast coastline etc. Different climatic conditions allow a huge variety of flora and fauna in India. India has some biodiversity hotspots like Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats. They are home to many unique and endangered species. All these factors make India rich in flora and fauna.