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Chapter 1

Categories of Computers and Computer Languages

Class 6 - APC Understanding Computer Studies


Choose the correct option

Question 1

A ............... converts a complete program written in a high-level language into a machine language at once.

  1. converter
  2. compiler
  3. interpreter
  4. assembler

Answer

compiler

Question 2

A program written in a high-level language is called ............... .

  1. object code
  2. code
  3. source code
  4. binary code

Answer

source code

Question 3

Which of the following is not a high-level language?

  1. Assembly language
  2. Java
  3. BASIC
  4. Python

Answer

Assembly language

Question 4

Which of the following is known as first generation programming language?

  1. High-level language
  2. Assembly language
  3. Machine language
  4. none of these

Answer

Machine language

Question 5

An electrocardiogram (ECG) is an example of ............... computer.

  1. digital
  2. analog
  3. hybrid
  4. all of these

Answer

hybrid

Question 6

Who developed the BASIC programming language?

  1. John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz
  2. Dennis Ritchie
  3. Bjarne Stroustrup
  4. James A. Gosling

Answer

John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz

Question 7

Which of the following is not a programming language?

  1. C++
  2. COBOL
  3. FORTRAN
  4. English

Answer

English

Question 8

Which of the following is known as India's first supercomputer?

  1. SUPREME
  2. SIERRA
  3. FUGAKU
  4. PARAM

Answer

PARAM

Fill in the blanks

Question 1

ENIAC was a fully electronic and general purpose first generation computer.

Question 2

Transistors replaced vacuum tubes in the second generation computers.

Question 3

Machine language is used to give instructions in terms of 0s and 1s.

Question 4

The fifth generation computer languages developed the concept of artificial intelligence.

Question 5

An assembler is a software which is also known as language translator.

Question 6

The Java language uses both Compiler and Interpreter.

Question 7

FORTRAN is known as the first computer language.

Question 8

Meter Scale is a type of analog computer.

Write the full form of the following

Question 1

ENIAC

Answer

Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator

Question 2

IBM

Answer

International Business Machines

Question 3

FORTRAN

Answer

Formula Translation

Question 4

SQL

Answer

Structured Query Language

Question 5

BASIC

Answer

Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code

Question 6

UNIVAC

Answer

Universal Automatic Computer

Question 7

PROLOG

Answer

Programming in Logic

Question 8

COBOL

Answer

Common Business Oriented Language

Name the high-level languages for the given areas of applications

Question 1

A language translator

Answer

Compiler

Question 2

A high-level language used for engineering and scientific applications

Answer

C

Question 3

A high-level language used for web designing

Answer

JAVA

Question 4

A game console

Answer

PlayStation 4

Question 5

A fifth generation computer language

Answer

Prolog (Programming in Logic)

Match the following

Question 1

Column AColumn B
Machine LanguageTranslator
MnemonicsC++
InterpreterBinary Digits
Bjarne StroustrupHigh-level Language
BASICAssembly Language

Answer

Column AColumn B
Machine LanguageBinary Digits
MnemonicsAssembly Language
InterpreterTranslator
Bjarne StroustrupC++
BASICHigh-level Language

Name the main component/technique used in

Question 1

First Generation Computers

Answer

Vacuum tubes

Question 2

Second Generation Computers

Answer

Transistors

Question 3

Third Generation Computers

Answer

Integrated Circuits

Question 4

Fourth Generation Computers

Answer

Microprocessors

Question 5

Fifth Generation Computers

Answer

Artificial Intelligence

Case-Study Based Questions

Question 1

The computer languages are categorised into low-level and high-level languages. Low-level language is further classified into two types viz. machine language and assembly language. A computer understands instructions in machine language (using digits 0's and 1's). Hence, a computer program needs to be converted into machine language using any translator, e.g., compiler, interpreter or assembler. However, the instructions given in high-level languages are easily understood by the users. Based on the above case, answer the following questions:

(a) Which language uses binary code?

  1. High-level language
  2. Assembly language
  3. Machine language
  4. Machine and assembly languages

(b) The instructions are written using English letters or words in

  1. High-level language
  2. Machine language
  3. Low-level language
  4. Assembly language

(c) Which source code is converted into machine code using Assembler?

  1. High-level
  2. Assembly language
  3. Machine language
  4. Binary level

(d) Which of the following is not used as a translator?

  1. Compiler
  2. Assembler
  3. Converter
  4. Interpreter

Answer

(a) Machine language

(b) High-level language

(c) Assembly language

(d) Converter

Question 2

An analog computer works on physical quantities such as length, mass, time, current, voltage, etc.; whereas a digital computer works on digits or discrete values. A hybrid computer is a combination of analog as well as digital computers.

With reference to the above discussion, answer the following questions:

(a) Name an analog computer.

(b) What type of computer is a Smartphone?

(c) Name a hybrid computer.

(d) What type of computer is a Smart TV?

Answer

(a) Meter Scale

(b) Digital Computer

(c) ECG Machine

(d) Embedded Computer

Define the following

Question 1

Analog computers.

Answer

An analog computer works on varying physical quantities. The data input to a computer is continuous in nature irrespective of the variations in input and the results are obtained after comparison.

For example, meter scale, thermometer etc.

Question 2

An Assembler

Answer

Assembler is a software which is used to convert a program written in assembly level language into a machine level language. It helps a computer to perform its basic operations.

Question 3

Second Generation Computer Languages.

Answer

In Second Generation Computer Languages, the instructions are given using mnemonics and codes. Second Generation Computer Languages are known as Assembly Languages. It is not understood directly by the computer. So a language translator known as Assembler is required to convert the mnemonics based instructions into machine language.

Question 4

Digital Computers?

Answer

A digital computer accepts data in the binary form:

  1. Zero (0) means OFF or low signal
  2. One (1) means ON or high signal

It gives results in terms of digits. All personal computers and laptops are digital in nature.

For example, digital watches, calculators etc.

Question 5

Fourth Generation Computer Languages.

Answer

Fourth Generation Computer Languages are user-friendly as they are closer to human language. They are operating system independent. Users can develop their own applications using them. Structured Query Language (SQL) is an example of 4GL.

Question 6

Embedded Computer

Answer

Embedded Computers are devices that consist of hardware and software (program) combined together for dedicated tasks. The set of instructions needed for the task are permanently stored in the internal memory of the computer hence they are also known as Dedicated Computers. For example, Dishwasher, Smart Television, etc.

Differentiate between the following

Question 1

Machine Level and Assembly Level Language

Answer

Machine Level LanguagesAssembly Level Languages
Instructions are given as strings of binary digits (0s and 1s)Instructions are given in terms of Mnemonics.
No OP-Code is required.Mnemonics are further coded into OP-Code.
It takes more time in coding instructions.It takes less time in coding instructions.
No translator is required for execution.A translator is required for execution.

Question 2

High-level and Low Level Languages

Answer

High-level LanguagesLow Level Languages
These languages are used to write programs in simple English and by using alphabets and numbers.These languages are used to write programs with the combination of 0s and 1s.
They are machine independent languages.They are machine dependent languages.
They are easy to learn.They are difficult to learn.
Modification of programs is easy.Modification of programs is time-consuming.

Question 3

Compiler and Interpreter

Answer

CompilerInterpreter
It converts the entire program into its machine code at once.It converts the entire program into its machine code line by line.
It displays the errors of the entire program only after compilation.It displays the errors of one line at a time during the conversion to its machine code.
The control moves to the next line irrespective of any errors in the previous line.The control doesn't move to the next line until the previous line is error-free.

Question 4

First and Third Generation Computer Languages

Answer

First Generation
Computer Languages
Third Generation
Computer Languages
First Generation Computer Languages are used to write programs with the combination of 0s and 1s.Third Generation Computer Languages are used to write programs in simple English and by using alphabets and numbers.
Machine dependent languages.Machine independent languages.

Long Answer Questions

Question 1

What are the limitations of machine language?

Answer

The limitations of machine language are:

  1. The process of generating binary codes is very time consuming.
  2. There is always a chance of making mistakes during the conversion into binary codes.
  3. It is a machine-dependent language.

Question 2

Mention two features of Fifth Generation Computer languages.

Answer

Two features of Fifth Generation Computer languages are as follows:

  1. The programs mainly focus on the development of artificial intelligence.
  2. They also made it possible to mimic the human sense and intelligence.

Question 3

What are the features of a high-level language?

Answer

The features of a high-level language are:

  1. They are machine independent languages.
  2. They are easy to learn and help to develop programming logic.
  3. Programs in these languages are easily understood by the user and hence can also be modified.

Question 4

Why do we need to learn computer languages?

Answer

Today, programming and software have disrupted our way of life. From booking a railway reservation ticket, to hailing a cab, to ordering food, almost all of our day to day activities involve interacting with software. This makes a fundamental understanding of computers, software and programming an absolute necessity. It is the computer languages which power all this. Hence, we need to learn computer languages to gain a better understanding of the modern world we live in.

Question 5

In what ways instructions were given in 1GL?

Answer

In 1GL, instructions were given using a string of binary digits i.e, 0s and 1s, e.g. 10010100010, 1110100101, etc.

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