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Chapter 1

Categories of Computers and Computer Languages

Class 6 - APC Understanding Computer Studies


Write the full forms of the following

Question 1

MLL

Answer

Machine Level Language

Question 2

ALL

Answer

Assembly Level Language

Question 3

HLL

Answer

High Level Language

Question 4

VB

Answer

Visual Basic

Question 5

ENIAC

Answer

Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator

Question 6

IBM

Answer

International Business Machines

Question 7

UNIVAC

Answer

Universal Automatic Computer

Question 8

COBOL

Answer

Common Business Oriented Language

State True or False

Question 1

Assembly level language uses instructions that are coded in terms of 1s and 0s.
False

Question 2

Compiler converts a program written in high-level language into machine level language.
True

Question 3

MARK I was the first fully operational electronic computer.
False

Question 4

First generation computers used machine level languages to give data and instructions.
True

Question 5

Vacuum tubes replaced transistors in the second generation computers.
False

Question 6

FORTRAN was the first high-level language developed in the first generation of computers.
True

Name the high-level languages for the given areas of applications

Question 1

An object oriented programming language

Answer

C++

Question 2

A powerful language used for engineering and scientific applications

Answer

C

Question 3

A high-level language used for web designing

Answer

JAVA

Question 4

An object oriented programming language which is popular among software professionals

Answer

C++

Match the following

Question 1

Column AColumn B
Machine Level LanguageTranslator
MnemonicsC++
InterpreterBinary Digits
Bjarne StroustrupHigh-level Language
BASICAssembly Level Language

Answer

Column AColumn B
Machine Level LanguageBinary Digits
MnemonicsAssembly Level Language
InterpreterTranslator
Bjarne StroustrupC++
BASICHigh-level Language

Name the main components used in

Question 1

First Generation Computers

Answer

Vacuum tubes

Question 2

Second Generation Computers

Answer

Transistors

Question 3

Third Generation Computers

Answer

Integrated Circuits

Question 4

Fourth Generation Computers

Answer

Microprocessors

Short Answer Questions

Question 1

Define analog computers.

Answer

An analog computer works on varying physical quantities. The data input to a computer is continuous in nature irrespective of the variations in input and the results are obtained after comparison.

For example, meter scale, thermometer etc.

Question 2

What is a digital computer?

Answer

A digital computer accepts data in the binary form:

  1. Zero (0) means OFF or low signal
  2. One (1) means ON or high signal

It gives results in terms of digits. All personal computers and laptops are digital in nature.

For example, digital watches, calculators etc.

Question 3

Define mainframe computers.

Answer

Mainframe computers are large computers with huge storage capacities. These computers are generally used in large industries, banking organisations, advanced scientific research centres, etc.

Question 4

What is meant by C++ (as a computer language)?

Answer

  1. C++ is an object oriented programming (OOP) language.
  2. This high-level language is derived from C language and it applies object oriented features of Simula 67.
  3. C++ is more popular among software professionals as it allows the user to perform long operations efficiently in short forms.

Question 5

What is an assembler?

Answer

Assembler is a software which is used to convert a program written in assembly level language into a machine level language. It helps a computer to perform its basic operations.

Differentiate between the following

Question 1

Machine Level and Assembly Level Languages

Answer

Machine Level LanguagesAssembly Level Languages
Instructions are given as strings of binary digits (0s and 1s)Instructions are given in terms of Mnemonics.
No OP-Code is required.Mnemonics are further coded into OP-Code.
It takes more time in coding instructions.It takes less time in coding instructions.
No translator is required for execution.A translator is required for execution.

Question 2

High-level and Low Level Languages

Answer

High-level LanguagesLow Level Languages
These languages are used to write programs in simple English and by using alphabets and numbers.These languages are used to write programs with the combination of 0s and 1s.
They are machine independent languages.They are machine dependent languages.
They are easy to learn.They are difficult to learn.
Modification of programs is easy.Modification of programs is time-consuming.

Question 3

Compiler and Interpreter

Answer

CompilerInterpreter
It converts the entire program into its machine code at once.It converts the entire program into its machine code line by line.
It displays the errors of the entire program only after compilation.It displays the errors of one line at a time during the conversion to its machine code.
The control moves to the next line irrespective of any errors in the previous line.The control doesn't move to the next line until the previous line is error-free.

Long Answer Questions

Question 1

What are the limitations of machine level languages?

Answer

The limitations of machine level languages are:

  1. The process of generating binary codes is very time consuming.
  2. There is always a chance of making mistakes during the conversion into binary codes.
  3. It is a machine-dependent language.

Question 2

Enlist three features of the second generation of computers.

Answer

Three features of the second generation of computers are as follows:

  1. Transistors were one of the main components used in the circuit of these computers.
  2. The computers were smaller in size as compared to the first generation computers.
  3. The processing speed of these computers increased from milliseconds to microseconds.

Question 3

What are the advantages of high-level languages?

Answer

The advantages of high-level languages are-

  1. They are machine independent languages.
  2. They are easy to learn and help to develop programming logic.
  3. Programs in these languages can be easily modified.

Question 4

State two limitations of the first generation of computers.

Answer

Two limitations of the first generation of computers are:

  1. These computers were difficult to operate.
  2. They needed heavy air-conditioned systems because of the tremendous amounts of heat generated by the vacuum tubes.

Question 5

Give three features of the third generation of computers.

Answer

Three features of the third generation of computers are:

  1. The use of integrated circuit technology reduced the size of these computers.
  2. These computers could do fast calculations.
  3. Their capacity to hold data and information was more due to improved secondary storage devices.
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