Progress Check 1
Which is the most common variety of cultivated mushroom ?
White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporous).
What is meant by "mushroom seed" ?
Mushroom seed consists of mycelium of the selected type of mushroom that is introduced into the compost and allowed to grow.
What is done in the step called "casing" ?
A thin layer of soil is spread over the compost on which mushroom seed had been spread earlier. This is called Casing. It is done in order to provide support to growing mushrooms and prevent quick drying of compost.
Multiple Choice Type
Production of ethanol (C2H5OH) occurs in one of the life processes of:
- Bread mould
Reason — Yeast respires anaerobically to form ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Which among the following statements is incorrect about fungi ?
- They are multicellular organisms except yeasts.
- They are heterotrophic and are either parasitic or saprophytic.
- They prefer cold and dry conditions to grow.
- They are immobile unlike bacteria.
They prefer cold and dry conditions to grow.
Reason — Fungi prefer warm and humid climate
Yeast is used in the production of
- Ethyl alcohol
- Acetic acid
Reason — Yeast respires anaerobically to form ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Which of the following is a unicellular organism ?
Reason — Yeasts are one-celled fungi.
The scientific name of white button mushroom is :
- Agaricus bisporus
Reason — Agaricus bisporus is the most common edible mushroom also known as white button mushroom.
The entire mass of hyphae is termed as :
- Both (a) and (b)
Reason — The thread like hyphae together form mycelium.
The heterotrophic mode of nutrition in fungi is:
Reason — Most of the fungi show saprophytic mode of nutrition. Some may also show parasitic mode of nutrition.
The stored food material in Yeast is in the form of :
- Glycogen and fat
- Starch and Cellulose
- Glycogen and Protein
- None of these
Glycogen and fat
Reason — Yeast stores food material in the form of Glycogen and fat in fat vacuoles.
Which of the following properties of fungi separates them from plants ?
- Absence of chlorophyll
- Autotrophic mode of nutrition
- Lack of a stem
- Poisonous and non-edible
Absence of chlorophyll
Reason — Fungi are differentiated from the plants as they don't have chlorophyll and their body is not differentiated into roots, stems and leaves.
The main products produced by microorganisms during fermentation are:
- Ethanol or lactic acid
- Ethanol and uric acid
- Amino acid and lactic acid
- Ethanol or uric acid
Ethanol or lactic acid
Reason — The main products produced by microorganisms during fermentation are ethanol or lactic acid and also acetic acid in some cases.
Very Short Answer Type
Fill in the blanks:
- The specific genus to which several species of yeast belong is ............... .
- ............... is a unicellular fungi.
- Alcoholics may develop body ailments like ............... due to over consumption of alcohol.
- The curd from which moisture has been removed is termed as ............... .
- Cheese is a good source of vitamin ............... and ............... .
- The specific genus to which several species of yeast belong is Saccharomyces .
- Yeast is a unicellular fungi.
- Alcoholics may develop body ailments like Liver cirrhosis due to over consumption of alcohol.
- The curd from which moisture has been removed is termed as cottage cheese .
- Cheese is a good source of vitamin A and B .
Short Answer Type
Define the terms
(a) Fermentation is a process in which the microorganisms (yeast and bacteria) break down carbohydrates into simpler products (ethanol or lactic acid) in the absence of oxygen.
(b) Spawning is defined as introduction of mushroom seed or mycelium of selected mushroom into compost.
Where can the mould Rhizopus be most easily found?
Rhizopus is the common bread mould. It grows not only on bread but also on a variety of other organic matter such as cloth, wood, paper, leather goods, animal dung. In food materials — pickles, bread, fruit, chapatti etc. They specifically occur in humid and warm climatic conditions.
Write the chemical equation of fermentation.
The chemical equation of fermentation is:
Name three vitamins which are richly found in mushrooms.
Three vitamins which are richly found in mushrooms are:
- Pantothenic acid
Describe the role of certain fungi in industrial production.
- Used to prepare wine and alcohol
- Used in the cultivation of mushroom
- Used to prepare enzymes
- Used to prepare antibiotics
- Used to prepare alcoholic beverages
- Used to prepare bakery products and fermented foods
- Used to prepare organic acids
(a) Saprophyte and Parasite
(b) Aerobic and anaerobic respiration with regard to the products formed.
(a) Differences between Saprophyte and Parasite:
|Definition||Individuals of one species that live at the expense of individuals from another species, called hosts.||Organisms that feed on decaying dead organic matter and break it down into simple molecules that can be used by the autotrophs.|
|Food source||Obtained from host without killing it.||Obtained from decaying entities.|
|Feeding||Feeds with vital products from the host or parts of its body.||Feeds with decaying dead organic matter.|
(b) Differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration with regard to the products formed:
|Aerobic respiration||Anaerobic respiration|
|It occurs in presence of oxygen. The products formed are water and carbon dioxide.||It occurs in absence of oxygen. The end products are ethanol or lactic acid and carbon dioxide.|
Long Answer Type
Discuss the role of yeasts in bakeries and breweries.
During the baking process, yeast added to the dough ferments sugar and produces carbon dioxide. This causes the dough to rise and when it is baked, the gas bubbles expand causing the bread to be spongy and light. Hence yeast is used in bakeries.
The greatest importance of yeast to us is through their property of alcoholic fermentation. Fermentation is the process in which the micro-organisms like yeast break down the carbohydrates into simpler products like ethanol and lactic acid. This alcohol is of great commercial importance. Hence, yeast is used in breweries to produce beer and wine from barley maltose and grapes, respectively.
Write in proper sequence the five major steps in the cultivation of the common edible mushroom.
Five major steps in the cultivation of common edible mushrooms are:
- Composting — Composting involves mixing of various components such as
- Paddy straw or Wheat
- Organic and Inorganic fertilizer
- Chicken manure
The temperature of the compost is kept for about one week under 50°C.
- Spawing — 'Mushroom seed' in the form of mycelium of mushroom to be grown is introduced into the heap of compost and left for spreading for around two days.
- Casing — It is an important step wherein a thin layer of soil is spread over the compost. It:
- Gives support to the mushroom
- Prevents quick drying of the compost
- Provides humidity
- Assists to check temperature
- Cropping & Harvesting — The growth occurs in three principal stages:
- Mycelium grows within 2-6 weeks
- Tiny pin heads
- Button stage grows bigger attaining marketable size
- Fully grown mushrooms are taken out.
- Preservation — Shelf life of mushroom can be increased by the following processes:
- Vacuum cooling
- Storing at 15 degree Celsius and giving gamma radiation
- Freeze drying in a solution of ascorbic acid, citric acid, and brine etc.
Would you consider bacteria and yeast as plants? Give reason.
We cannot consider bacteria and yeast as plants. The reasons for it are as given below:
- They lack chlorophyll (except a few bacteria). Their mode of nutrition is heterotrophic instead of autotrophic.
- Bacteria are prokaryotic and lack membrane bound organelles.
- Fungi is multicellular but it is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves.
Both bacteria and yeast reproduce by asexual method, but how does this method differ in them ?
Bacteria reproduces by cell division or binary fission. The circular DNA duplicates. The cell expands and the two DNA are pulled apart. The cell constricts at the middle separating the two cells.
Fungi like yeast reproduce by budding. In budding, a small bud or daughter cell is formed on the parent cell. The bud continues to grow until it separates from the parent cell, forming a new cell.
Structured / Application / Skill Type
If you leave a piece of moist bread covered under a small bell jar at a warm place, mould grows on it in a few days. Answer the following with reference to this observation:
(a) What would happen if the bread was not covered by the bell-jar?
(b) What would happen if moist bread was placed in a refrigerator?
(c) What appears first on the bread – the mycelia or the spores?
(a) If bread was not covered by the bell-jar, mould would have appeared but after a while. The humid and warm conditions within the bell-jar facilitate rapid production of mould.
(b) If the moist bread was placed in a refrigerator, moulds would not appear. Fungi like bread mould (Rhizopus) grow very quickly in warm and humid conditions. The low temperature inside the refrigerator would prevent its growth.
(c) Mycelia appears first on the bread, not the spores.
Draw a neat diagram of the unicellular fungus 'Yeast' and label its six important parts.
Below is the diagram of Yeast with its six important parts labelled:
The figure shown alongside represents an organism. Study the figure and answer the following questions.
(a) Identify the organism and write its common as well as scientific name.
(b) Label the parts shown as 1, 2 and 3.
(c) Name two suitable habitats of the organism shown.
(d) Mention its main mode of reproduction.
(e) What specific kinds of digestion occur in it ?
(a) The organism show in figure is bread mould.
Common Name — Moulds
Scientific Name — Rhizopus
(b) The parts are:
- 1 → Sporangium
- 2 → Spores
- 3 → Hyphae
(c) They prefer warm and humid climate and organic material like fruits, bread, leather etc. to grow.
(d) It shows asexual reproduction as well as sexual reproduction. Asexually it reproduces by spore formation. A few hyphae become erect (sporangiophores) and swell at the tip to form sporangium. The sporangium containing spores burst to spread the spores. The spore germinates to form hyphae when it finds favorable conditions.
(e) Extracellular digestion.