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Chapter 10

Nutrition [Nutrition in General]

Class 9 - Concise Biology Selina

Progress Check 1

Question 1

Define malnutrition.


Malnutrition is the condition in which a person suffers due to an unbalanced diet. It includes both deficiency as well as an excess of nutrients in a person's diet.

Question 2

Categorise the following items into carbohydrates and proteins:

Cellulose, Starch, Egg albumen, Milk, Pea, Glycogen, Cane-sugar


CelluloseEgg albumen

Question 3

Write the approximate requirement of calories for the following:

  1. An adult physical labourer.
  2. A teenager.
  3. A pregnant woman.


  1. 2800-3200
  2. 1800-2400
  3. 2200-2600

Multiple Choice Type

Question 1

Which one of the following pairs of nutrients includes both as simple sugars (monosaccharides)?

  1. Sucrose and glucose
  2. Glucose and maltose
  3. Fructose and glucose
  4. Maltose and lactose


Fructose and glucose

Reason — Fructose and glucose, both are simple sugars (monosaccharides).

Question 2

Which one of the following is the correct matching of a nutrient mineral element and its one rich source?

  1. Calcium - Potato
  2. Sodium – Citrus fruits
  3. Iodine – Dairy milk
  4. Potassium – Banana


Potassium – Banana

Reason — Banana is a rich source of potassium.

Question 3

Marasmus is due to deficiency of:

  1. Vitamin C
  2. Carbohydrates, fats and proteins
  3. Fat
  4. Food


Carbohydrates, fats and proteins

Reason — Marasmus is caused in infants below one year of age due to severe deficiency of Carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

Question 4

Fat soluble vitamins are:

  1. A, D and E
  2. B, C and D
  3. B, D and E
  4. A, B and C


A, D and E

Reason — Vitamin A, D and E are fat soluble vitamins whereas Vitamin B and C are water soluble vitamins.

Question 5

Which of the following is the best source of vitamin A:

  1. Apple
  2. Honey
  3. Carrot
  4. Peanuts



Reason — Carrot contains carotene, which is precursor of vitamin A.

Question 6

Ascorbic acid is Vitamin :

  1. C
  2. D
  3. B
  4. A



Reason — The chemical name of vitamin C is Ascorbic acid.

Question 7

Which of the following components of a balanced diet enables easy movement of the food through the intestines?

  1. Fats
  2. Proteins
  3. Roughage
  4. Vitamins



Reason — Roughage is not digested by our body and hence do not provide any nutrition but it maintains gut health by enabling easy movement of the food through the intestines.

Question 8

Which of the following is popularly known as grape sugar?

  1. Fructose
  2. Lactose
  3. Glucose
  4. Galactose



Reason — Glucose is known as grape sugar as ripe grapes contain glucose.

Question 9

Which of the following consists of two molecules of glucose ?

  1. Maltose
  2. Sucrose
  3. Lactose
  4. Fructose



Reason — Maltose is a disaccharide formed by two molecules of glucose.

Question 10

The disease caused due to the deficiency of Thiamine is:

  1. Osteomalacia
  2. Beri beri
  3. Rickets
  4. Dermatitis


Beri beri

Reason — Thiamine or vitamin B1 deficiency results in beri beri.

Very Short Answer Type

Question 1

Mention whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F)

(a) Cellulose in our food passes out undigested.

(b) Kwashiorkor is a severe vitamin deficiency disease.

(c) Iron is required for the proper working of thyroid.

(d) Foods protect us from disease and therefore antibiotics which protect us from disease are also foods.

(e) Mineral salts contribute in regulating body processes.


(a) True

(b) False
Corrected Statement — Kwashiorkor is a severe carbohydrate deficiency disease.

(c) False
Corrected Statement — Iodine is required for the proper working of thyroid.

(d) False
Corrected Statement — Foods protect us from disease but antibiotics which cure diseases are medicine.

(e) True

Question 2

Name the mineral element that is needed for the following respectively:

(i) Strong teeth

(ii) Proper working of thyroid

(iii) Synthesis of haemoglobin

(iv) Production of chemical energy (ATP)

(v) Cell permeability, especially in nerve cells


The mineral element that are needed for the following are:

(i) Strong teeth — Fluorine.

(ii) Proper working of thyroid — Iodine.

(iii) Synthesis of haemoglobin — Iron.

(iv) Production of chemical energy (ATP) — Phosphorous.

(v) Cell permeability, especially in nerve cells — Potassium and Sodium.

Question 3

Name the nutrients whose deficiencies cause the following diseases in humans:

  1. Pernicious anemia
  2. Pellagra
  3. Night blindness
  4. Goiter
  5. kwashiorkor


The nutrients whose deficiencies cause the following diseases are:

  1. Pernicious anemia — Vitamin B12.
  2. Pellagra — Vitamin B3.
  3. Night blindness — Vitamin A.
  4. Goiter — Mineral Iodine.
  5. kwashiorkor — Proteins.

Question 4

Mark the odd one out in each of the following cases and name the category to which the others belong:

  1. Xerophthalmia, Marasmus, Pellagra, Scurvy.

  2. Riboflavin, Thiamine, Folic acid, Iodine.

  3. Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, Lactose.

  4. Cellulose, Glycogen, Fructose, Starch.

  5. Calcium, Sodium, Iron, Potassium.


  1. Marasmus — Marasmus is the odd one out as it is a diseases caused by deficiency of Carbohydrates, fats and proteins whereas the others namely Xerophthalmia, Pellagra, Scurvy are vitamin deficiency diseases.

  2. Iodine — Iodine is the odd one out as it is a mineral element whereas the others namely Riboflavin, Thiamine, Folic acid are Vitamins.

  3. Lactose — Lactose is the odd one out as it is disaccharide or double sugar made up of galactose and glucose, whereas glucose, fructose and galactose are monosaccharides.

  4. Fructose — Fructose is the odd one out as it is water soluble sugar whereas cellulose, glycogen, and starch are polysaccharides that are not soluble in water.

  5. Iron — Iron is the odd one out as it is micronutrient whereas Calcium, Sodium and Potassium are macronutrients

Question 5

Match the terms given in column A with those of column B.

Column AColumn B
TocopherolVitamin C
PhylloquinoneVitamin D
RetinolVitamin K
Ascorbic acidVitamin A
CalciferolVitamin E


Column AColumn B
TocopherolVitamin E
PhylloquinoneVitamin K
RetinolVitamin A
Ascorbic acidVitamin C
CalciferolVitamin D

Question 6

Name two diseases caused due to the deficiency of the following :

(a) Vitamin A

(b) Vitamin D

(c) Vitamin B3

(d) Iodine

(e) Protein


(a) Night Blindness, Xerophthalmia

(b) Rickets, Osteomalacia

(c) Pellagra, Dermatitis

(d) Goitre, Cretinism

(e) Kwashiorkor, Marasmus

Question 7

Identify the deficiency diseases with the help of the clues given below :

(a) Delay in blood clotting time.

(b) Swelling of the thyroid gland in the neck region.

(c) Poor mental and physical growth in children.

(d) Poor vision in dim light.

(e) Dryness of the cornea and ulceration in the eye.


(a) Haemorrhage — due to deficiency of Vitamin K

(b) Goitre — due to deficiency of Iodine

(c) Cretinism — due to deficiency of Iodine

(d) Night Blindness — due to deficiency of Vitamin A

(e) Xerophthalmia — due to deficiency of Vitamin A

Question 8

Complete the following:

(a) Glucose + ............... → Lactose

(b) Glucose + Glucose → ...............

(c) ............... + Fructose → Sucrose

(d) (C6H10O5)n → ...............

(e) Amino acid1 + Amino acid2 + Amino acid3 + Amino acidn→ ...............


(a) Glucose + Galactose → Lactose

(b) Glucose + Glucose → Maltose

(c) Glucose + Fructose → Sucrose

(d) (C6H10O5)nStarch

(e) Amino acid1 + Amino acid2 + Amino acid3 + Amino acidnProtein

Short Answer Type

Question 1

Define the terms:

(a) Balanced diet

(b) Malnutrition

(c) Food

(d) Nutrients

(e) Kwashiorkor


(a) Balanced diet — A balanced diet is one which contains all the principal constituents of food in proper quantity so that it provides sufficient number of calories.

(b) Malnutrition — Malnutrition is the condition in which a person suffers due to an unbalanced diet. It includes both deficiency as well as an excess of nutrients in a person's diet.

(c) Food — Food is any substance which we eat or drink, and which contains the nutrients.

(d) Nutrients — The components of food that provide essential organic and inorganic compounds to our body are called Nutrients.

(e) Kwashiorkor — Kwashiorkor is a severe protein deficiency disease usually affecting young children and marked by Oedema of the feet and face, protruding belly, stunted growth and other symptoms.

Question 2

Give two examples each of the following and their usefulness, if any, in our body.

  1. Monosaccharides
  2. Disaccharides
  3. Polysaccharides


  1. Monosaccharides:
    Examples — Glucose, Fructose
    Usefulness — Glucose provides an instant source of energy. Fructose enhances glucose metabolism and facilitates disposal of dietary carbohydrate load.
  2. Disaccharides:
    Examples — Sucrose, Lactose
    Usefulness — Sucrose is the commercial sugar that is broken down into Glucose and Fructose by the body to provide the energy needed for physical and mental functions. Lactose is the natural sugar found in milk. Lactose acts as an excellent, slow release energy source and causes lesser tooth decay.
  3. Polysaccharides:
    Examples — Cellulose, Glycogen
    Usefulness — Cellulose provides roughage for proper functioning of gut. Glycogen serves as a fuel reserve for the body. The controlled breakdown of glycogen and release of glucose increase the amount of glucose that is available between meals.

Question 3

Write the important roles of the following food components in our body.

(a) Cellulose

(b) Fat

(c) Proteins

(d) Calcium

(e) Phosphorus


(a) Cellulose provide roughage for proper functioning of gut.

(b) Fat provides energy and helps to repair tissues.

(c) Protein builds as well as repairs cells and tissues.

(d) Calcium is constituent of bones and enamel. It is required for muscle contraction and clotting of blood.

(e) Phosphorus participates in synthesis of nucleic acid, ATP, NADP, bones, enamel. It helps in muscle contraction and conduction of nerve impulse.

Question 4

A doctor advises a bone patient to include more of milk and milk products in his everyday food. Why so?


Bones are made of iron and calcium. Milk products and milk are rich in Vitamin A and Calcium. The doctor advises his patient to include milk and its products so that the bones and teeth get stronger. Milk inhibits the oxidation of Vitamin A. It contains calcium that aids in blood clotting.

Long Answer Type

Question 1

Distinguish between the following pairs on the basis of the words indicated in the brackets :

(a) Monosaccharides and Disaccharides (Number of carbon atoms)

(b) Kwashiorkor and Marasmus (Age)

(c) Tocopherol and Pantothenic acid (Solubility)

(d) Malnutrition and Under-nutrition (Definition)

(e) Iron and Iodine. (Deficiency diseases)


(a) Difference between Monosaccharides and Disaccharides (Number of carbon atoms):

The number of carbon atoms is six.The number of carbon atoms is twelve

(b) Difference between Kwashiorkor and Marasmus (Age):

It affects children of 2-5 years of age.It affects infants below the age of 1 year.

(c) Difference between Tocopherol and Pantothenic acid (Solubility):

TocopherolPantothenic acid
It is soluble in fat.It is soluble in water.

(d) Difference between Malnutrition and Undernutrition (Definition):

Malnutrition is the condition in which a person suffers due to an unbalanced diet. It includes both deficiency as well as an excess of nutrients in a person's diet.Undernutrition refers to the condition in which a person suffers from poor nutrition caused by not having enough food containing essential nutrients.

(e) Difference between Iron and Iodine (Deficiency diseases):

Iron deficiency results in Anaemia.Iodine deficiency causes Goitre and Cretinism.

Question 2

List the six main purposes for which food is required by the body.


Purpose for which food is needed by the body.

  1. Growth — Food is necessary for building new protoplasm or cells. This helps in the growth of an organism.
  2. Repair — Food provides material for the repair of worn-out or injured cells.
  3. Energy — We obtain energy from food. This energy is required for carrying out various life functions.
  4. Maintenance — Nutrients obtained through food help to maintain the chemical composition of cells.
  5. Provision of raw material — to manufacture various secretions namely, hormones, enzymes, milk, sweat etc.
  6. Protection — Food provides protection from infection and diseases.

Question 3

Why are proteins necessary in our food?


Proteins are essential in our food because they play a crucial role in various bodily functions. They are body building foods. They provide the chemical material for the growth and repair of body cells and tissues. Proteins also serve as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies, and contribute to the structure and functioning of muscles, bones, and other body systems. In the time of emergency, they may also be oxidised to release energy.

Question 4

Taking the examples of whole grain atta, fruit and green leafy vegetables, describe how roughage in our diet is useful.


Whole grain atta, fruits and green leafy vegetables are the chief sources of roughage. The benefits of roughage are:

  1. It enables undigested food to move easily through the intestines.
  2. It stimulates secretion from the digestive tract.
  3. It helps in the removal of cholesterol and toxins.
  4. It prevents constipation as it absorbs water and retains it making the faecal matter soft.
  5. It simulates the muscle contraction in the intestinal wall, making the movement of faecal matter easy.

Question 5

Give any four reasons why water is necessary in our body.


Water is necessary in our body because:

  1. It acts as a solvent in the body for thousands of organic and inorganic substances.
  2. It is used to produce digestive juices.
  3. It helps in the transportation of digested foods and oxygen throughout the body.
  4. It is used in the excretion of soluble wastes.

Question 6

Prepare a balanced diet menu for a day specifying meals for breakfast, lunch and dinner for a teenager like yourself.


Breakfast — Milk 250 ml/ 2 eggs + cereals + fruits.

Lunch — Vegetable 150 gms/ meat/ fish + 2-3 chapati/ rice + salad + Dal 1 cup.

Dinner — Vegetable 100 gms + salad + chapatis 2-3.

Structured / Application / Skill Type

Question 1

Given below is an incomplete table of vitamins, their rich sources and the related deficiency diseases. Fill in the blanks [(i)-(viii)] with only one suitable word for each.

VitaminRich sourceDeficiency disease
(i) ......Whole grainBeri-beri
NiacinMilk(ii) ......
(iii) ......(iv) ......Scurvy
Calciferol(v) ......(vi) ......
(vii) ......Carrot, yellow fruit(viii) ......


VitaminRich sourceDeficiency disease
ThiamineWhole grainBeri-beri
Ascorbic acidCitrus fruitScurvy
CalciferolFish liver oilRickets
RetinolCarrot, yellow fruitNight blindness

Question 2

Complete the following table by filling the blanks.

MineralFunctionRich source
......Formation of haemoglobin......


MineralFunctionRich source
IodineFacilitates the secretion of thyroxin hormone by the thyroid glandIodized salt, water, sea foods
IronFormation of haemoglobinWhole cereals, fish, nut, egg yolk, liver, kidney
CalciumConstituents of enamel, bones. Required for blood clotting, muscle contractionDairy food, beans, cabbage
PotassiumNerve and muscle activity, fluid balance, secretion of neurotransmitterBanana, potato, citrus fruit