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Chapter 10

Nutrition [Nutrition in General]

Class 9 - Concise Biology Selina


Multiple Choice Type

Question 1

Which one of the following pairs of nutrients includes both as simple sugars (monosaccharides)?

  1. Sugar and glucose
  2. Glucose and maltose
  3. Fructose and glucose ✓
  4. Maltose and lactose

Question 2

Which one of the following is the correct matching of a nutrient mineral element and its one rich source?

  1. Calcium - Potato
  2. Sodium – Citrus fruits
  3. Iodine – Dairy milk
  4. Potassium – Banana ✓

Question 3

Marasmus is due to deficiency of:

  1. Vitamin C
  2. Carbohydrates, fats and proteins ✓
  3. Fat ✓
  4. Food

Question 4

Fat soluble vitamins are:

  1. A, D and E ✓
  2. B, C and D
  3. B, D and E
  4. A, B and C

Question 5

Which of the following is the best source of vitamin A:

  1. Apple
  2. Honey
  3. Carrot ✓
  4. Peanuts

Question 6

Ascorbic acid is Vitamin :

  1. C ✓
  2. D
  3. B
  4. A

Very Short Answer Type

Question 1

Mention whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F)

(a) Cellulose in our food passes out undigested
True

(b) Kwashiorkor is a severe vitamin deficiency disease
False

(c) Iron is required for the proper working of thyroid
False

(d) Foods protect us from disease and therefore antibiotics which protect us from disease are also foods.
False

(e) Mineral salts contribute in regulating body processes.
True

Question 2

Name the mineral element that is needed for the following respectively:

(i) Strong teeth

(ii) Proper working of thyroid

(iii) Synthesis of haemoglobin

Answer

The mineral element that are needed for the following are:

  1. Strong teeth — Fluorine
  2. Proper working of thyroid — Iodine
  3. Synthesis of haemoglobin — Iron

Question 3

Name the nutrients whose deficiencies cause the following diseases in humans:

  1. Pernicious anemia
  2. Pellagra
  3. Night blindness
  4. Goiter
  5. kwashiorkor

Answer

The nutrients whose deficiencies cause the following diseases are:

  1. Pernicious anemia — Vitamin B12
  2. Pellagra — Vitamin B3
  3. Night blindness — Vitamin A
  4. Goiter — Mineral Iodine
  5. kwashiorkor — Proteins

Question 4

Mark the odd one out in each of the following cases and name the category to which the others belong:

(i) Xerophthalmia, Marasmus, Pellagra, Scurvy.

(ii) Riboflavin, Thiamine, Folic acid, Iodine.

Answer

(i) In Xerophthalmia, Marasmus, Pellagra, Scurvy — Marasmus is the odd one out as it is a diseases caused by deficiency of Carbohydrates, fats and proteins whereas the others namely Xerophthalmia, Pellagra, Scurvy are vitamin deficiency diseases.

(ii) In Riboflavin, Thiamine, Folic acid, Iodine — Iodine is the odd one out as it is a mineral element whereas the others namely Riboflavin, Thiamine, Folic acid are Vitamins.

Short Answer Type

Question 1

Give two examples each of the following and their usefulness, if any, in our body.

  1. Monosaccharides
  2. Disaccharides
  3. Polysaccharides

Answer

  1. Monosaccharides:
    Examples — Glucose, Fructose
    Usefulness — Glucose provides an instant source of energy. Fructose enhances glucose metabolism and facilitates disposal of dietary carbohydrate load.
  2. Disaccharides:
    Examples — Sucrose, Lactose
    Usefulness — Sucrose is the commercial sugar that is broken down into Glucose and Fructose by the body to provide the energy needed for physical and mental functions. Lactose is the natural sugar found in milk. Lactose acts as an excellent, slow release energy source and causes lesser tooth decay.
  3. Polysaccharides:
    Examples — Cellulose, Glycogen
    Usefulness — Cellulose provides roughage for proper functioning of gut. Glycogen serves as a fuel reserve for the body. The controlled breakdown of glycogen and release of glucose increase the amount of glucose that is available between meals.

Question 2

Define and give one example of a balanced diet?

Answer

A balanced diet is one which contains all the principal constituents of food in proper quantity. It provides sufficient number of calories to the person depending on the person's age, gender, lifestyle and special needs. A balanced diet ensures healthy growth of the person and provides sufficient energy for efficient daily activities and functions.

An example of a balanced diet is a meal consisting of vegetables, fruits, grains, proteins, dairy and oils.

Question 3

A doctor advises a bone patient to include more of milk and milk products in his everyday food. Why so?

Answer

Bones are made of iron and calcium. Milk products and milk are rich in Vitamin A and Calcium. The doctor advises his patient to include milk and its products so that the bones and teeth get stronger. Milk inhibits the oxidation of Vitamin A. It contains calcium that aids in blood clotting.

Long Answer Type

Question 1

List the six main purposes for which food is required by the body.

Answer

Purpose for which food is needed by the body.

  1. Growth — Food is necessary for building new protoplasm or cells. This helps in the growth of an organism.
  2. Repair — Food provides material for the repair of worn-out or injured cells.
  3. Energy — We obtain energy from food. This energy is required for carrying out various life functions.
  4. Maintenance — Nutrients obtained through food help to maintain the chemical composition of cells.
  5. Provision of raw material — to manufacture various secretions namely, hormones, enzymes, milk, sweat etc.
  6. Protection — Food provides protection from infection and diseases.

Question 2

Why are proteins necessary in our food? Name one protein deficiency disease of young children.

Answer

Proteins are body building foods. They provide the chemical material for the growth and repair of body cells and tissues. During crisis, they also may get oxidized to release energy in the body. One protein deficiency disease of young children is Kwashiorkor.

Question 3

Taking the examples of whole grain atta, fruit and green leafy vegetables, describe how roughage in our diet is useful.

Answer

Whole grain aata, fruits and green leafy vegetables are the chief sources of roughage. The benefits of roughage are:

  1. It enables undigested food to move easily through the intestines.
  2. It stimulates secretion from the digestive tract.
  3. It helps in the removal of cholesterol and toxins.
  4. It prevents constipation as it absorbs water and retains it making the faecal matter soft.
  5. It simulates the muscle contraction in the intestinal wall, making the movement of faecal matter easy.

Structured / Application / Skill Type

Question 1

Given below is an incomplete table of vitamins, their rich sources and the related deficiency diseases. Fill in the blanks [(i)-(viii)] with only one suitable word for each.

VitaminRich sourceDeficiency disease
(i) ......Whole grainBeri-beri
NiacinMilk(ii) ......
(iii) ......(iv) ......Scurvy
Calciferol(v) ......(vi) ......
(vii) ......Carrot, yellow fruit(viii) ......

Answer

VitaminRich sourceDeficiency disease
ThiamineWhole grainBeri-beri
NiacinMilkPellagra
Ascorbic acidCitrus fruitScurvy
CalciferolFish liver oilRickets
RetinolCarrot, yellow fruitNight blindness

Question 2

Complete the following table by filling the blanks.

MineralFunctionRich source
Iodine............
......Formation of haemoglobin......
Calcium............
Potassium............

Answer

MineralFunctionRich source
IodineFacilitates the secretion of thyroxin hormone by the thyroid glandIodized salt, water, sea foods
IronFormation of haemoglobinWhole cereals, fish, nut, egg yolk, liver, kidney
CalciumConstituents of enamel, bones. Required for blood clotting, muscle contractionDairy food, beans, cabbage
PotassiumNerve and muscle activity, fluid balance, secretion of neurotransmitterBanana, potato, citrus fruit
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