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Chapter 1

Introducing Biology

Class 9 - Concise Biology Selina

Progress Check

Question 1

Name the specific branches of Biology concerned with the study of:

  1. Fungi
  2. Fishes
  3. Insects
  4. Transmission of body characteristics from parents to children


  1. Mycology
  2. Ichthyology
  3. Entomology
  4. Genetics

Question 2

Mention the kind of study made under the following branches of science:

  1. Histology
  2. Ecology
  3. Cytology
  4. Pathology


  1. Histology — The study of minute structures or tiny bits of the body at tissue level as seen with the help of a compound microscope.
  2. Ecology — the study of relationship of an organism to its biotic and abiotic environment.
  3. Cytology — The study of structure and function of cell of an organism.
  4. Pathology — The study of diseases of plant and animals.

Multiple Choice Type

Question 1

Palaeontology is the study of

  1. embryos
  2. blood
  3. classification
  4. fossils



Reason — The study of prehistoric forms of life through fossils is called Palaeontology.

Question 2

Clones of animals are being produced through the practice of

  1. genetics
  2. ecology
  3. embryology
  4. biotechnology



Reason — Cloning is a rapidly advancing branch of biotechnology which produces genetically identical individuals (clones) of an organism either naturally or artificially.

Question 3

The scientist known as the 'Founder of Biology' is:

  1. Theophrastus
  2. Hippocrates
  3. Aristotle
  4. Robert Hooke



Reason — Aristotle was the first person to study animals in sufficient detail.

Question 4

Who among the following is called the 'Father of Botany' is:

  1. Hippocrates
  2. Aristotle
  3. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
  4. Theophrastus



Reason — Theophrastus mainly studied plants in detail and is said to be the 'Father of Botany'.

Question 5

Which branch of Biology deals with blood and urine test?

  1. Paleontology
  2. Phycology
  3. Physiology
  4. Pathology



Reason — Study of diseases involves blood and urine test.

Question 6

The study of gross structure of organs in an organism as seen in a dissection is called:

  1. Morphology
  2. Cytology
  3. Anatomy
  4. Life sciences



Reason — Study of internal organs is called anatomy.

Question 7

The study of form and structure of an organism is called:

  1. Mycology
  2. Morphology
  3. Genomics
  4. Biometrics



Reason — The study of form and structure of an organism is called Morphology.

Question 8

Which branch of biology deals with the interpretation of biological events in terms of molecules in a cell?

  1. Molecular biology
  2. Marine biology
  3. Nuclear biology
  4. Space biology


Molecular biology

Reason — Molecular biology involves interpreting biological events in terms of molecules in the cell.

Very Short Answer Type

Question 1

Name the following branches of biology

  1. Application of biological processes in technologies
  2. Science of growing fruits and vegetables
  3. Study of prehistoric forms of life
  4. Study of causes of immunity (resistance to or defense against diseases)


  1. Biotechnology
  2. Horticulture
  3. Paleontology
  4. Immunology

Question 2

Fill in the blanks:

  1. Bioengineering deals with making artificial ............... .
  2. ............... is the entire DNA sequence of an organism.
  3. Silk is produced by rearing ............... .
  4. Evolution deals with the study of ............... and ............... of organisms.
  5. Organisms which draw food from the host body are called ............... .
  6. Animals which give birth to young ones are known as ............... .
  7. ............... is called the Father of Medicine.


  1. Bioengineering deals with making artificial Joints and Limbs.
  2. Genome is the entire DNA sequence of an organism.
  3. Silk is produced by rearing Silkworm.
  4. Evolution deals with the study of descent and origin of organisms.
  5. Organisms which draw food from the host body are called Parasites.
  6. Animals which give birth to young ones are known as Viviparous.
  7. Hippocrates is called the Father of Medicine.

Question 3

Match the branches of biology in Column A with the respective areas of study in Column B.

Column AColumn B


Column AColumn B

Question 4

Name these:

(a) Three major branches of Science.

(b) Three branches of Biology on the basis of major of kinds of organisms.

(c) Three branches of sciences concerned with animal husbandry (raising, breeding and managing of livestock).

(d) Five professions which require a basic knowledge of biology.


(a) Physics, Chemistry and Biology

(b) Botany, Zoology, Human Biology

(c) Dairy farming, Poultry, Bee farming

(d) Doctor, Dentist, Pathologist, Druggist, Biotechnologist.

Question 5

Note the relationship between the first two words and suggest a suitable word/words for the fourth place.

(a) Silkworm : Sericulture :: Bees : ...............

(b) Animals : Zoology :: Plants : ...............

(c) Diseases : Pathology :: Immunity : ...............

(d) Form and structure : Morphology :: Metabolism :: ...............

(e) Reptiles : Herpetology :: Fishes : ...............


(a) Apiculture

(b) Botany

(c) Immunology

(d) Physiology

(e) Ichthyology

Question 6

Correct the following false statements by changing the first/last word only:

(a) Bacteriology is the study of Prokaryotes.

(b) DNA finger printing is an application of systematics.

(c) Study of birds is entomology.

(d) Non-living components of ecosystems are biotic components.

(e) Study of life in the sea is aqualogy.


(a) Bacteriology is the study of bacteria.

(b) DNA finger printing is an application of Biochemistry .

(c) Study of birds is ornithology.

(d) Living components of ecosystems are biotic components.

(e) Study of life in the sea is Marine biology.

Short Answer Type

Question 1

Define the terms:

  1. Life sciences
  2. Human biology
  3. Agriculture
  4. Anthropology
  5. Biometrics


  1. Life science is the branch of science that deals with the study of life processes. The term biology is also used synonymously.
  2. Human biology is defined as study of human as a living organism and his relationship with other living organisms.
  3. Agriculture is defined as study of raising crops and livestock rearing.
  4. The study of humans and their interaction with the society is called anthropology.
  5. Biometrics involve the verification of a person by his body features such as fingerprints, the pattern of iris in the eye and behavioural characteristics.

Question 2

What is Biology? Name and define its three major branches.


Biology is one of the major branches of science. It is a natural science which deals with study of living beings, that is to say animals, plants and even humans. Biology is derived from two Greek words: 'bios' meaning life and 'logos' meaning study. Biology on the whole can be sub-divided into three major branches, namely:

  1. Botany — Botany is a branch of biology dealing with study of plants.
  2. Zoology — Zoology is a field of biology concerning with animal study.
  3. Human Biology — It deals with humans as a living entity and their relationship with other entities.

Question 3

How does Biology help us in leading a healthier life?


Knowledge of biology has greatly helped us in the field of human health. It provides to individuals and society, the knowledge that enables us to live a proper life. Basic knowledge can help in self-analyzing causatives of diseases, different microbes causing diseases. Thereby examining and studying their mode of living and propagating diseases. This study has paved the way for production of new drugs synthesized naturally or synthetically killing causatives of diseases.

Question 4

A farmer and a housewife may have never studied biology, yet both of them know some of its general principles through experience. State any two principles which they know.


A farmer, although has never studied biology, knows by his experience how to increase his produce. He knows how to plough and plant crops and select good quality seeds for sowing. Right from selecting germfree seeds to sow, act of ploughing, crop plantation, using fertilizers, irrigation and its types, crop harvesting, cross-breeding with other plants, weed removal, etc, they have knowledge of basic biological concepts.

A housewife, by using her experience knows which fruit or vegetable to grow and how much time. She knows all the nutritional values of various foodstuffs. She can suggest first hand treatment for simple cold, cough and other mild mishaps. She knows to tame some useful animals like cow, goat and dog for her maximum benefit.

Question 5a

Distinguish between Zoology and Entomology


It is the study of animalsIt is the study of insects

Question 5b

Distinguish between Genetics and Eugenics


It is the science of passing body characteristics from parents to their offspring which includes both differences and similarities.It is a science aiming at improving human race via controlled heredity.

Question 5c

Distinguish between Phycology and Mycology


It deals with scientific study of algaeDeals with the study of fungi

Question 5d

Distinguish between Space Biology and Exobiology


Space BiologyExobiology
It is a field of study concerning the survival problems of things that are living in outer space.Relatively a newer field of science that considers the study of life away in the universe.

Question 5e

Distinguish between Biotechnology and Bioinformatics


Usage of microbes or living cells in technology and industry.It is the analysis and management of biological data that is assembled in databases.

Question 5f

Distinguish between Embryology and Immunology


It is a field of biology that deals with the embryo development in animals and plants.It is a science dealing with the process and causative of immunity(defend against/resist diseases).

Question 5g

Distinguish between Ichthyology and Pisciculture


It is concerned with study of fishes.It deals with the technique of growing fishes.

Descriptive Answer Type

Question 1

Do you think Biology can help in further increasing the yield of food? If so, how?


Yes, Biology can help in further increasing the yield of food. New varieties of plants and new breeds of cattle, poultry, etc. are being developed with the knowledge of Biology. The science has also increased our knowledge of diseases of plants and animals, and how to cure them. Plants and animals of newer varieties are cultivated by cross-breeding through the application of biotechnological principles, unleashing unexplored concepts for a brighter future. All these efforts are helping us to produce more food in fields, dairies and poultry farms.