Progress Check 1
Name the following:
- The kind of microscope that consists of a single biconvex lens.
- The kind of mirror used for throwing light on the object in Hooke's microscope.
- Simple microscope
- Concave mirror
What is the maximum magnification that can usually be achieved by
- a compound microscope
- an electron microscope?
- 2000 times
- 200,000 times
Progress Check 2
Name the following:
- Any two one-celled organisms.
- The longest cells in animals.
- Amoeboid cells in humans.
- Shape of white blood cells.
- Bacteria, Amoeba
- Nerve cells
- White blood cells
A large surface area/volume ratio of the cells ensure a greater diffusion of certain substances into the cell. Name such substances.
Nutrients, metabolic wastes, respiratory gases.
Progress Check 3
Name the part of cell in which
- many chemical reactions occur with the help of enzymes.
- a network of chromatin fibres occurs.
- cellulose forms the main component.
- Cell Wall
- an organ and an organelle
- a plant cell and an animal cell pertaining to the presence of plastids.
- Difference between an organ and an organelle:
|An organ||An organelle|
|It is bigger in size and visible to naked eyes.||It is microscopic|
|Carries out specialized functions in the body.||Carries out specialized functions in the cell.|
|Example: Heart, Lungs||Example: Mitochondria, Ribosomes.|
- A plant cell has plastids while an animal cell does not have plastids.
Name the cell organelles concerned with
- Secretion of enzymes
- Trapping of solar energy
- Synthesis of proteins
- Intracellular digestion
- Production of ATP
- Golgi complexes and Dictyosomes
Name the cell organelle/component which is
- composed of cellulose
- formed of an irregular network of tubular double membranes
- a clear space with water or other substances in solution
- visible only in cell division stages
- Cell wall
- Endoplasmic Reticulum
Mention if the following statements are true or false. If false, suggest the change in the information underlined.
- Prokaryotic cells have larger ribosomes.
- Eukaryotic cells have mitochondria.
- Amoeba is an example of Prokaryotes.
- Nuclear membrane is present in bacteria.
Corrected Statement— Prokaryotic cells have smaller ribosomes.
Corrected Statement— Amoeba is an example of Eukaryotes.
Corrected Statement— Nuclear membrane is absent in bacteria.
Progress Check 4
Column I lists a few activities of living organisms and column II the activity of cells related to them. Match the items in the two columns.
(Activity of Organism)
(Activity of cells)
|1. Repair||Contractility of cell|
|2. Cooling of Body||Cells devour germs|
|3. Movement||Cell division|
|4. Protection from disease||Gland cells give out sweat for evaporation|
(Activity of Organism)
(Activity of cells)
|1. Repair||Cell division|
|2. Cooling of Body||Gland cells give out sweat for evaporation|
|3. Movement||Contractility of cell|
|4. Protection from disease||Cells devour germs|
Which cell organelle is the key to the life of the cell?
The Nucleus is the key to the life of the cell.
How do you say that a cell also has a life span and death like an organism? Give one example.
The cells behave like an organism. They carry out all the processes like an organism viz. respiration and elimination of wastes. They also have a life span like an organism. They grow, age, deteriorate and finally die. The dying cells are dissolved or destroyed by their own lysosomes. For example, Red blood cells of our body die after 120 days. These cells are continuously replaced by new cells in our body
All organisms excrete. Does an individual cell also do it? Give one example
Yes, an individual cell also excretes like an organism. Most of the waste substances are digested by the Lysosomes. Some cells may also release the waste product out through their cell membrane.
Every organism needs food. Does a cell also need it? Explain very briefly.
Yes, a cell also needs food for carrying out different processes. The food in the form of Glucose is broken down during respiration inside the mitochondria to release energy (ATP).
Multiple Choice Type
All life starts as-
- an egg
- a single cell
- a gene
- a chromosome
a single cell
Reason — A cell is smallest living entity. Therefore, All life starts as a single cell.
Which one of the following is found both in cells of a mango plant and a monkey?
- cell wall
- cell membrane
Reason — Cell membrane is found in both animal and plant cell. The plant cell also has a cell wall, additional to cell membrane.
Which one of the following cell organelles is correctly matched with its function?
- Ribosomes — Synthesis of proteins
- Mitochondria — Secretion of enzymes
- Plasma Membrane — Freely permeable
- Centrosome — Carries genes
Ribosomes — Synthesis of proteins
Reason — The function of the ribosomes is synthesis of proteins.
A plant cell can be identified from an animal cell by the:
- Absence of centrosome
- Presence of cell membrane
- Presence of vacuoles
- None of the above
Absence of centrosome
Reason — Centrosomes are only found in animal cells.
Plant cell has a cell wall made of-
- Fatty acids
Reason — The cell wall is made up of cellulose (a non living substance).
The cell organelle that helps in respiration of the cell is-
Reason — Mitochondria is the organelle responsible for breaking of glucose molecule to release energy.
Which of the following organelles is involved in the formation of the acrosome of a sperm?
- Golgi apparatus
Reason — Golgi apparatus contains certain hydrolytic enzymes which helps to break the outer membrane of ovum.
Which part of the nucleus participates in protein synthesis?
- Nuclear membrane
- Nuclear pore
Reason — Nucleolus helps in Ribosomal RNA formation after which protein synthesis is done by ribosomes.
The pigment which is not found in plastids is:
Reason — Anthocyanin is not associated with plastids; instead they remain dissolved in the cell sap.
The tubules of Golgi Complexes are technically termed as:
Reason — Hollow tubular structure of Golgi Complexes are known as Cisternae.
Very Short Answer Type
Name the part of the cell concerned with the following?
- Liberation of energy
- Synthesis of proteins
- Transmission of heredity characters from parents to offspring
- Initiation of cell division
- Hydrolytic in function
- Entry of only certain substances into and out of the cell.
- Plasma membrane/cell membrane
State whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
(a) All animal cells contain a cell wall.
(b) The cell wall is made of protein.
(c) Centrosome occurs in animal cells.
(d) Plant cells contain large vacuoles.
(e) Protoplasm is the part of the cell which surrounds the nucleus.
(f) Genes are located in chromosomes.
(g) Anthocyanin are the pigments of flowers, which are dissolved in cell-sap.
Corrected statement — All plant cells contain a cell wall.
Corrected statement — The cell wall is made of cellulose.
Corrected statement — Cytoplasm is the part of the cell which surrounds the nucleus.
Corrected statement — Anthocyanin are the pigments of fruits, which are dissolved in cell-sap.
How many chromosome pairs are found in human cells?
23 pairs of chromosome are found in human cells.
What is the name of the chemical substance which constitutes the genes?
The chemical substance constituting the genes is DNA. It stands for de-oxy ribonucleic acid.
Match the items in column ‘A’ with those in column ‘B’
|Column A||Column B|
|Lysosomes||Covered by tonoplast|
|Anthocyanin||Dissolved in the cytoplasm|
|Column A||Column B|
|Vacuoles||Covered by tonoplast|
|Anthocyanin||Dissolved in the cytoplasm|
Fill in the blanks
- ............... consists of membranous sacs and secretes 40 types of digestive enzymes.
- ............... is surrounded by microtubules, located near the nucleus.
- Very thin flexible, living membrane which is differently permeable, is called ............... .
- More than 1000 chromosomes are found in the nucleus of certain ...............
- ............... are heredity units.
- ............... is a plastid which stores starch.
- Lysosomes consists of membranous sacs and secretes 40 types of digestive enzymes.
- Centriole is surrounded by microtubules, located near the nucleus.
- Very thin flexible, living membrane which is differently permeable, is called Plasma membrane.
- More than 1000 chromosomes are found in the nucleus of certain Insects.
- Genes are heredity units.
- Leucoplast is a plastid which stores starch.
Write the full forms of the following abbreviations:
- DNA — Deoxyribonucleic acid
- RNA — Ribonucleic acid
- ATP — Adenosine triphosphate
- SER — Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
- RER — Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Name the plastid and pigment likely to be found in the cells of
- petals of sunflower
- ripe tomato
- skin of green mango
- cells of potato
- petals of sunflower — chromoplast
- ripe tomato — anthocyanin
- skin of green mango — chlorophyll
- cells of potato — no pigment
Short Answer Type
Define the terms:
- Cell organelles
- Cell inclusions
- Cell sap
- The part of cell having a definite structure and a definite function is called Cell organelle.
- Various non-living substances like nutrients or pigments present in the cell are called Cell inclusions.
- The liquid found inside the cell in which various organelles are found, is called Cytosol.
- The watery solution present in the vacuoles is called Cell sap.
- The semi-liquid substance that fills most of the part of cell (except nucleus) within the cell membrane is called Cytoplasm.
Write the exact locations of each of the following:
- Centrosome - near nucleus (only in animal cells)
- Chromosome - in nucleus
- Genes - on chromosomes
- Mesosome - Plasma membrane of bacterial cells
- Plasmid - Cytoplasm of bacterial cells
Mention three features found only in plant cells and one found only in animal cells.
Three features found only in plant cells are:
- Presence of cell wall.
- Presence of large vacuole.
- Presence of plastids.
One feature only found in animal cell is presence of centrosome.
Why are the cells generally of a small size?
Cells are generally so little so that they can maximize their ratio of area to volume. They have to be ready to get the nutrients in and therefore the waste out quickly.The important point is that the area to the volume ratio gets smaller as the cell gets larger. Thus, if the cell grows beyond a particular limit, not enough material is going to be ready to cross the membrane fast enough to accommodate the increased cellular volume. That's why cells are so small.
It is said that the protoplasm cannot be analysed chemically. Why?
The protoplasm cannot be analysed chemically because it has complex organic and living cell organelles which can disintegrate if chemicals are added to analyse. Also due to complexity of physical and chemical properties the ultimate chemical nature of protoplasm cannot be determined.
What is the difference between an organ and an organelle?
|Size||Visible to the naked eyes, larger in size||Microscopic|
|Location||They are present throughout the body||Known as little organs, are found within the cell.|
|Function||Carry out functions of the entire body||Carry out functions within the cell|
|Example||Heart, Lungs, Liver||Ribosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex.|
Do you think the cells of an elephant would be larger than the cells of a rat? Explain briefly.
Cell is the basic unit of life. Cells aggregates to form tissue, organ, organ system and ultimately organism. Elephant has more cells compared to rat. The cell size is independent of the size of the entity. The cell size of a rat and that of an elephant are the same. Within the entity, the cell size is the same, it does not differ. However, what varies is the number of cells. Number of cells in a large entity such as elephant is much more compared to a smaller entity such as a rat.
Descriptive Answer Type
What is the cell theory? Who propounded it and when?
The Cell Theory states three major points -
- The cell is the smallest unit of structure of all living thing
- The cell is the unit of function of all living things
- All cells arise from pre-existing cells.
The theory was propounded in 1839 by Schwann and Schleiden. Rudolf Virchow in 1858 made an addition to the cell theory by saying that all cells arise from pre-existing cells.
Differentiate between Protoplasm and cytoplasm.
|Protoplasm is the living matter of the cell. The total substance of a living cell-nucleus and cytoplasm||Mixture of insoluble and soluble organic compounds and water wherein different cell organelles are implanted.|
Differentiate between Nucleolus and nucleus.
|It is present in the nucleus and is round-shaped nucleoli.||It is present in the cell and is a dense spherical structure. It comprises a network of thread-like structures known as chromatin fibres.|
Differentiate between Centrosome and chromosome.
|Centrosome contains two centrioles. Spindle fibres develop from centrosome during cell division.||Chromosome contain genes or hereditary data that transfer genetic traits from parents to offspring.|
|Found in animal cell only.||They are found in the nucleus of both plant and animal cell.|
Differentiate between Cell wall and cell membrane.
|Cell wall||Cell membrane|
|Non-living rigid layer||Living, flexible membrane and thin|
|Composed of cellulose||Composed of lipoproteins|
Differentiate between Plant cell and animal cell.
|Plant cell||Animal cell|
|Cell wall is definite and made of cellulose||No cell wall|
|Centrosome is absent||Centrosome is present|
|Plastids usually present||Plastids absent|
Differentiate between Prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
|Cells contain primitive and undefined nucleus.||Have a well-defined nucleus along with a nuclear membrane.|
|Other than ribosomes, they do not contain any other cell organelle.||Possess other cell organelles.|
|Possess smaller ribosomes.||Larger ribosomes.|
|Example – Blue-green algae||Example – Humans|
State the major functions of the following-
- Plasma membrane
- Golgi apparatus
- Asters of centrosome
- Glycogen granule
The major functions are as follows-
Plasma membrane —
- Separates contents of cell from its surroundings.
- Regulates the entry of certain solutes and ions.
- Maintains shape of the cell in animal cells.
- Protein synthesis
- Intracellular digestion.
- Destroy foreign substances.
- They are referred to as 'suicidal bags' as they destroy cell organelles when they turn old or are damaged.
- Digest cartilages during formation of bones.
- Controls the cell functions.
- Referred to as ‘power house of the cell’, as energy is stored in the form of ATP.
- Involved in cellular respiration to release energy.
- Bearers of genes.
Golgi apparatus(in animal cells) —
- Synthesis and secretion of enzymes, hormones,etc.
- Acrosomes of sperms are formed.
- Contains organelles perform multitude of functions.
- Performs all metabolic activities.
Asters of centrosome —
- Cell division – regulation and initiation.
- Spindle fibre formation.
- Passes genetic characteristics from parents to offspring.
Glycogen granule —
- Food for cells.
- Stores food, water, pigments and waste products.
- Renders turgidity to the plant cell.
Mention the three differences between a living cell and a brick in a wall
Following are the differences between a living cell and a brick in a wall-
|The living structure is non-rigid||Living structure is rigid|
|Contains cellulose chiefly||Contains soil primarily|
|Is functional in nature, performs critical functions pertaining to life processes||Non-functional|
List any six features found both in plant and animal cells.
Given below are the following six features found both in plant and animal cells
- Cell membrane is present.
- Golgi body is present.
- Liquid matrix known as cytoplasm is observed in the cell.
- Mitochondria generates energy, is found in the cells.
- Ribosomes are found. They are responsible for protein synthesis.
- A prominent nucleus is observed.
Given below are the sketches of two types of cells A and B.
(a) Which one of these is a plant cell? Give reason in support of your answer.
(b) List the cell structures which are common to both the types.
(c) Name the structures found only in plant cells and those found only in animal cells.
(a) Figure B is a plant cell because in Figure B, the cell has a cell wall, a large vacuole and the vacuole is seen pushing the nucleus to the periphery.
(b) Cell structures common to both the types in the figure are:
- Cell membrane
- Endoplasmic reticulum
- Golgi body
(c) The structures found only in plant cells are Cell wall and Plastid. The structures found only in animal cells are Centrosome.