Short Answer Questions
What is meant by the term election?
Election is a procedure whereby persons are chosen, by voting, to represent the voters for running the government.
Under which method of elections are the elections to Lok Sabha held?
The Lok Sabha elections are held by Direct election method. People of India directly elect their representatives to the Lok Sabha.
Name the system of election to the office of the President of India.
What is meant by a by-election?
When a seat held by any member of the Legislative Assembly in the Centre or State falls vacant on account of death or resignation of the member before completion of his/her term, to fill up this vacancy the election which is held is called By-Election.
Who allots the symbols to political parties?
The Election Commission allots symbols to political parties.
When is a mid-term election held?
This type of election is held when a State Legislative Assembly or the Lok Sabha is dissolved before the completion of its full term (5 years).
Who appoints the Election Commissioners?
The Election Commissioners are appointed by the President of India. This is done at the behest of the Prime Minister as per Article 74.
What is the normal term of the Chief Election Commissioner and other Commissioners?
The normal term of the Chief Election Commissioner and other Commissioners is six years. During this tenure if they attain the age of 65 years, they shall vacate office on the day of attaining this age.
Name two important powers and functions of the Election Commission.
Two important powers and functions of the Election Commission are:
- Preparation of Electoral Rolls and Photo Identity Cards.
- Registration and Recognition of Political Parties.
Name one advisory function of the Election Commission.
The Election Commission advises the President or the Governors of the State in respect of elecoral matters, disqualification of members, election disputes, petitions etc.
What is known as the Voters List?
The Commission identifies eligible voters in each constituency and prepares the list of all eligible voters. This is called voters list.
Who prepares the voters list?
The Election Commission prepares the voters list.
With reference to Democracy and Elections, answer the following questions:
(a) Distinguish between two types of elections.
(b) What type of elections are direct and what type are indirect in a Parliamentary Democracy?
(c) How are the elections of the President and Vice-President of India held?
(a) Below are the differences between the two types of elections:
|Sl. No.||Direct Election||Indirect Election|
|1||People vote directly for their representatives.||People elect their representatives indirectly through their elected representatives.|
|2||Law regulates the qualifications, age, etc. of voters and establishes eligibility requirements for State officials.||All elected representatives are treated at par. There are no further qualifications.|
|3||Every adult person holds the right to vote.||Every elected representative holds the right to vote.|
|4||There is a very large body of voters called the Electorate.||There is a very small body of voters.|
|5||Members of Legislative Assemblies and Members of Lok Sabha are elected directly.||The Members of State Legislative Councils, Members of Rajya Sabha, the President of India and the Vice President are elected indirectly.|
(b) Election of Legislative Assemblies and Lok Sabha are direct and the election of State Legislative Councils, Rajya Sabha, the President of India and the Vice President are indirect in a Parliamentary Democracy.
(c) The President of India is elected indirectly by the members of an Electoral college consisting of the elected members of both the houses of Parliament and the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States including National Capital Territory of Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry. The election takes place in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote. Like the President, the election of the Vice-President is also indirect but in this election the State Legislatures do not take part.
With reference to types of elections, answer the following:
(a) What is known as General Elections?
(b) State two points of difference between a by-election and mid-term election.
(c) When were the last General Elections held in India? What do you understand by the term 'electorate'?
(a) The Elections held to elect the members of the Lok Sabha after expiry of the normal term of five years are called the General Elections.
(b) Two points of difference between a by-election and mid-term election are:
|Sl. No.||Mid-Term Election||By-elections|
|1||This type of election is held when a State Legislative Assembly or Lok Sabha is dissolved before the completion of its full term (5 years)||This type of election is held when a seat falls vacant due to death or resignation of the member before completion of his/her term.|
|2||The new house has a full five year term.||The member so elected remains the member for the unexpired term of the house.|
(c) The last General Elections were held in 2019 in India.
An electorate can be defined as all the people who are eligible to vote. Alternatively, a very large body of voters is called the electorate.
With reference to terms of office and conditions of service of the Election Commission, answer the following questions:
(a) Who constitute the Election Commission? Who is the head of the Election Commission? Who appoints him?
(b) What is the term of the Election Commissioners? What happens in case there is a difference in opinion between the Election Commissioners?
(c) State any four functions of the Election Commission.
(a) The Election Commission consists of three members — a chief Election Commissioner and two other Election Commissioners.
The chief election commissioner is the head of the Election commission. He is appointed by the President of India
(b) The term of the Election Commissioners is six years. During this tenure if they attain the age of 65 years, they shall vacate office on the day of attaining this age.
In case there is a difference in opinion between the Election Commissioners, decision is taken in favour of the majority opinion.
(c) Following are the four functions of the Election Commission:
- Preparation of electoral rolls and photo identity cards.
- Registration and recognition of political parties.
- Fixing dates and conducting elections.
- Ensuring free and fair elections.