Which of the following refer to a group of people holding similar views or beliefs
- Political Party
- Ruling Party
Democracy is a form of government in which
- the ruling party selects its candidates to contest elections.
- the king selects representatives to administrative posts.
- citizens elect their own representatives to rule the country.
- None of the above
citizens elect their own representatives to rule the country
The election held upon dissolution of the Legislature before its full term (5 years) is:
- General elections
- Direct elections
- Indirect elections
- Mid-term elections
Indirect Elections are held to elect members of
- Lok Sabha
- Vidhan Parishad
- Both (b) and (c)
Both (b) and (c)
Who appoints the Election Commissioners?
- President of India
- Prime Minister of India
- Chief Justice of India
- Act of Parliament
President of India
What is the normal term of the Chief Election Commissioner and other Commissioners?
- Five years
- Four years
- Six years
- Ten years
How is the difference of opinion amongst the Election Commissioners settled?
- In favour of the majority
- The Supreme Court settles it
- The Chief Election Commissioner’s opinion is final
- The President intervenes and decides
In favour of the majority
The Election Commission conducts
- Parliamentary Elections
- State Legislative Elections
- Election of the Office of President
- All of the above
All of the above
Election symbols are allotted to Political parties by
- The President of India
- The Chief Election Commissioner
- The Election Commission
- The Political party itself
The Election Commission
Constituency : Returning Officer :: .............. : Presiding Officers
- Polling booths
- Counting centres
- Both (a) and (b)
- None of the above
Both (a) and (b)
Which of the following helps the Election Commission to ensure free and fair elections?
- Code of Conduct
- Severe punishment for booth capturing
- Central Observers
- All of the above
All of the above
Short Answer Questions
What is meant by the term election?
Election is a procedure whereby persons are chosen, by voting, to represent the voters for running the government.
Under which method of elections are the elections to Lok Sabha held? Name the system of election to the office of the President of India.
The Lok Sabha elections are held by Direct election method. People of India directly elect their representatives to the Lok Sabha.
The system of election to the office of the President of India is indirect Elections.
What is meant by a (a) by-election (b) mid-term election held?
(a) By-elections — When a seat held by any member of the Legislative Assembly in the Centre or State falls vacant on account of death or resignation of the member before completion of his/her term, to fill up this vacancy the election which is held is called By-Election.
(b) Mid-term election — This type of election is held when a State Legislative Assembly or the Lok Sabha is dissolved before the completion of its full term (5 years).
Who allots the symbols to political parties? What role do election symbols play in an election?
The Election Commission allots symbols to political parties.
The election symbols give identification to the political parties on ballot paper/electronic voting machine. It helps illiterate voters to identify the party they want to vote for.
Name two important powers and functions of the Election Commission.
Two important powers and functions of the Election Commission are:
- Preparation of Electoral Rolls and Photo Identity Cards.
- Registration and Recognition of Political Parties.
What is known as the Voters List? Who prepares the voters list?
The Commission identifies eligible voters in each constituency and prepares the list of all eligible voters. This is called voters list.
The Election Commission prepares the voters list.
Write a short note on the advisory function of the Election Commission.
The election commission advises the President or the Governors of the State in respect of electoral matters, disqualification of members, election disputes, petitions etc. The commission also advises judiciary in the matter of post election disqualification of sitting members of parliament and state legislature. The cases of persons found guilty of corrupt practices at elections which come before the supreme court and high courts are also referred to the commission for its opinion.
With reference to Democracy and Elections, answer the following questions:
(a) Distinguish between two types of elections.
(b) What type of elections are direct and what type are indirect in a Parliamentary Democracy?
(c) How are the elections of the President and Vice-President of India held? Give reasons to support your answer.
(a) Below are the differences between the two types of elections:
|Sl. No.||Direct Election||Indirect Election|
|1||People vote directly for their representatives.||People elect their representatives indirectly through their elected representatives.|
|2||Law regulates the qualifications, age, etc. of voters and establishes eligibility requirements for State officials.||All elected representatives are treated at par. There are no further qualifications.|
|3||Every adult person holds the right to vote.||Every elected representative holds the right to vote.|
|4||There is a very large body of voters called the Electorate.||There is a very small body of voters.|
|5||Members of Legislative Assemblies and Members of Lok Sabha are elected directly.||The Members of State Legislative Councils, Members of Rajya Sabha, the President of India and the Vice President are elected indirectly.|
(b) Election of Legislative Assemblies and Lok Sabha are direct and the election of State Legislative Councils, Rajya Sabha, the President of India and the Vice President are indirect in a Parliamentary Democracy.
(c) The President of India is elected indirectly by the members of an Electoral college consisting of the elected members of both the houses of Parliament and the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States including National Capital Territory of Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry. The election takes place in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote. Like the President, the election of the Vice-President is also indirect. The Vice-President is elected by members of both Houses of Parliament. In this election, the State Legislatures do not take part.
With reference to types of elections, answer the following:
(a) What is known as General Elections?
(b) State two points of difference between a by-election and mid-term election.
(c) When were the last General Elections held in India? What do you understand by the term 'electorate'?
(a) The Elections held to elect the members of the Lok Sabha after expiry of the normal term of five years are called the General Elections.
(b) Two points of difference between a by-election and mid-term election are:
|Sl. No.||Mid-Term Election||By-elections|
|1||This type of election is held when a State Legislative Assembly or Lok Sabha is dissolved before the completion of its full term (5 years)||This type of election is held when a seat falls vacant due to death or resignation of the member before completion of his/her term.|
|2||The new house has a full five year term.||The member so elected remains the member for the unexpired term of the house.|
(c) The last General Elections were held in 2019 in India.
An electorate can be defined as all the people who are eligible to vote. Alternatively, a very large body of voters is called the electorate.
With reference to terms of office and conditions of service of the Election Commission, answer the following questions:
(a) Who constitute the Election Commission? Who is the head of the Election Commission? Who appoints him?
(b) What is the term of the Election Commissioners? What happens in case there is a difference in opinion between the Election Commissioners?
(c) State any four functions of the Election Commission.
(a) The Election Commission consists of three members — a chief Election Commissioner and two other Election Commissioners.
The chief election commissioner is the head of the Election commission. He is appointed by the President of India
(b) The term of the Election Commissioners is six years. During this tenure if they attain the age of 65 years, they shall vacate office on the day of attaining this age.
In case there is a difference in opinion between the Election Commissioners, decision is taken in favour of the majority opinion.
(c) Following are the four functions of the Election Commission:
- Preparation of electoral rolls and photo identity cards.
- Registration and recognition of political parties.
- Fixing dates and conducting elections.
- Ensuring free and fair elections.
Suppose the Class Representative of your class is to be elected by means of single transferable vote through secret ballot. Write down the steps for election starting from filling the forms by those who want to stand for election till the final selection is made.
Following are the steps for election of Class Representative:
- Nomination of Candidates — Candidates will fill the nomination form.
- Election Campaign — It will continue after nomination till the date of polling.
- Polling — Students will vote for their favourite candidate.
- Counting — The votes in secret ballot are counted to decide the winner.
- Announcement of result — Name of the winning candidate will be announced.
If you have to bring certain reforms in the system of elections to Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha in States, which ones would you like to introduce and why?
I would introduce following changes in elections to Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha:
- One Nation One Election — I would introduce simultaneous or synchronised elections in which voters can exercise their separate choices for both Assembly and Lok Sabha polls in one outing. It will optimise public funds and reduce the cost to the exchequer for conducting elections.
- Preventing Criminalisation of Politics — I would introduce more reforms to prevent people with criminal backgrounds to stand for elections.
- No campaign or voting on the basis of caste — Although this rule exists but it is not being followed strictly in our system.
- Paid News — Paid news is any news or analysis appearing in any media (Print and Electronic) for a price in cash or kind. It is quickly becoming a big hurdle in conducting free, fair and transparent elections. I would introduce strict rules to prevent paid news from disrupting elections.