Which of the following is not a form of software piracy?
- Hard Disk Loading
Reason — Encryption is the process of transforming data into an unreadable code. It is not a form of software piracy. Softlifting, counterfeiting and hard disk loading are forms of software piracy.
............... is the process of transforming data into an unreadable code.
- Information Security
Reason — Encryption is the process of transforming data into an unreadable code.
............... refers to flooding the user's inbox with unwanted advertisements and messages.
Reason — Spamming refers to flooding the user's inbox with unwanted advertisements and messages.
The right which is concerned with the design and algorithm of the product rather than the entire product is called ............... .
- Data Protection Law
Reason — The right which is concerned with the design and algorithm of the product rather than the entire product is called Patent.
E-commerce stands for ............... .
- Electrical Commerce
- Electronic commerce
- Ethical Commerce
- None of these
Reason — E-commerce stands for Electronic commerce.
When someone else uses your online identity to create fraudulent messages or commit crimes, it is known as ............... .
- Identity theft
- Cyber theft
- E-commerce fraud
Reason — When someone else uses your online identity to create fraudulent messages or commit crimes, it is known as identity theft.
............... is defined as the right to control what happens with your personal information.
Reason — Privacy is defined as the right to control what happens with your personal information.
............... licences are a family of permissive free software licences.
Reason — BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) licences are a family of permissive free software licences.
............... software is a copyrighted software.
Reason — Proprietary software is a copyrighted software.
............... Rights refer to intellectual property rights given to persons over the digital property created by them.
- Digital Property
Reason — Digital Property Rights refer to intellectual property rights given to persons over the digital property created by them.
............... is a system of moral principles that differentiates between good and bad practices.
Ethics is a system of moral principles that differentiates between good and bad practices.
............... to practice ethical code of conduct constitutes fraud.
Failure to practice ethical code of conduct constitutes fraud.
............... is a technique used to retrieve personal information of a user from his discarded documents.
DumpsterDiving is a technique used to retrieve personal information of a user from his discarded documents.
............... is stealing confidential, personal, and financial information from a computer or a mobile phone and misusing it to harm the user.
Cyber theft is stealing confidential, personal, and financial information from a computer or a mobile phone and misusing it to harm the user.
............... is obtaining personal information through direct observation by looking over a person's shoulder.
Shoulder Surfing is obtaining personal information through direct observation by looking over a person's shoulder.
HTTPS Protocol encrypts the information or data using a ............... certificate.
HTTPS Protocol encrypts the information or data using a Transport Layer Security (TLS) certificate.
............... software are computer programs which identify, prevent, and remove viruses from our computer.
Antivirus software are computer programs which identify, prevent, and remove viruses from our computer.
Encrypted data is referred to as ............... text.
Encrypted data is referred to as Cipher text.
When the same sentence structure is used with synonyms for the appropriate words of the sentence, it is called ............... plagiarism.
When the same sentence structure is used with synonyms for the appropriate words of the sentence, it is called Mosaic plagiarism.
The simplest way to prevent plagiarism is the ............... method.
The simplest way to prevent plagiarism is the Citation method.
Plagiarism may occur due to a lack of interest in one's work.
Reason — Lack of interest in one's work is a factor contributing to plagiarism.
Piracy is concerned with personal information.
Reason — Software Piracy refers to theft of software through illegal copying of genuine programs or counterfeiting and circulation of products which are duplicate copies of the original.
Patent for innovations is an Industrial property.
Reason — Industrial Property includes trademarks, patents for innovations, industrial design rights, and geographical indications (GI) of source.
We should never share our password and PIN number with unauthorised personnels.
Reason — We should never share our password and PIN number with unauthorised personnels as it may lead to crimes like identity theft.
Encryption is the process of transforming data into a readable code.
Reason — Encryption is the process of transforming data into an unreadable code.
The Internet offers us convenient ways to shop from our homes or offices for almost everything.
Reason — The Internet offers us online stores and websites to shop from our homes or offices for almost everything.
Good ethics means that the company provides the most reliable information about products or services.
Reason — Good ethics in business involve being honest, transparent, and providing reliable and accurate information to customers about products or services. This prioritizes integrity, trustworthiness, and customer well-being.
Doing business legally and ethically only benefits the customers and not the company.
Reason — Legal and ethical business practices create a win-win situation where both customers and the company benefit from a positive and sustainable business environment.
Renting means unauthorised sharing of software for temporary use for some nominal charges.
Reason — Renting means unauthorised sharing of software for temporary use for some nominal charges.
Apache licence version 2.0 is an open source software licence.
Reason — Apache licence version 2.0 is an open source software licence.
Successful security solutions require a convergence of three components. Name these components.
The components are:
What are the most common forms of identification and authentication.
Identification → Username
Authentication → Password
Name the process of transforming data into an unreadable code.
Name the term for any digital information related to you or created by you, which may be stored online?
Which type of licences offer users the right to run, study, share, modify, and distribute copies and modified versions of the software with the condition that the same rights be preserved for its derivatives?
What is the other name for literary theft?
Name the term used for the right to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas, through any media.
Freedom of expression
Which type of software has no ownership or copyright associated with it?
Give the full form of BSD licences.
Berkeley Software Distribution
When the user does not really understand how to properly paraphrase, quote, and cite the research, which type of plagiarism is he committing?
What is fraud? Cite any two reasons why online fraud has been increasing.
Failure to practice ethical code of conduct constitutes fraud. Fraud means purposefully misrepresenting facts to deceive another person for personal gains.
Online fraud has been increasing because of the following two reasons:
- Ambiguity — Since the transaction does not happen face-to-face, the identity of the parties is easily concealed and is hard to verify.
- Hacking — It is relatively easy for hackers to steal information and fraudsters to buy that information in the online black market.
Enlist any three netiquettes to be followed when online.
Three netiquettes to be followed when we are online are as follows:
- When communicating online, we should always begin our message with a salutation and end it with our name or signature.
- We should not read or forward another person's mail without seeking his permission.
- We should treat others as we would like to be treated by others. We should not include sarcastic or insulting comments in our message and always respect other's views and be courteous while posting our opinions on the online discussion groups.
Define Plagiarism. Write any three steps to prevent plagiarism.
Plagiarism means using or imitating the language and thoughts of some other person and projecting that representation as to our original work.
Three steps to prevent plagiarism are:
- One must specify the source, which informs the reader about the basis of one's ideas and the extent of one's research.
- To avoid plagiarism, one should refer to several sources, understand the concept, and then pen down one's understanding of the topic.
- One should use quotation marks around all the quoted words to avoid plagiarism.
Define Identity theft.
Identity theft refers to an act of stealing someone's personal information such as name, login details etc. and then posing as that person online. Malicious activities like fraudulent posts, rumour mongering, riots fueling, fraudulent financial transactions, etc. can be carried out through identity theft.
What is the difference between an Open Source and Free software?
Differences between Open Source software and Free software:
|Open Source Software||Free Software|
|1.||Open source software refers to software whose source code is made available to the public, allowing anyone to view, use, modify, and distribute the code.||Free software refers to software that respects users' freedoms.|
|2.||Open source emphasizes the practical benefits of transparency, collaboration, and the ability to modify and distribute software freely.||Free software emphasizes the philosophical and ethical aspects of software freedom focusing on users' rights to control and modify the software they use.|
|3.||Open source software can be released under various licenses, some of which are more permissive like BSD, MIT, Apache 2.||Free software adheres to specific licenses like the GNU General Public License (GPL) that ensures users' freedoms.|
Explain the philosophy of Open Source. Enlist any four criteria that qualifies a program to be Open source software.
Open source is a philosophy that promotes the free access and distribution of an end product, usually software or a program. It may extend to the implementation and design of other products. Such software, generally, gives users the freedom to run the software for any purpose, to use and modify the software, and to redistribute copies of the original and modified versions to others. These permissions are enforced through an open source licence.
Four criteria that qualify a program to be Open source software are:
- Free Redistribution — There shall be no restriction on the sale or distribution of the software, partial or whole, and such a sale shall be free of any royalty charges or any other fee.
- Source Code — The distributed program must include the source code as well as its compiled form. In cases where it is not included, the source code must be easily accessible from public sources on the Internet.
- Derived Works — The licence must allow modifications and derived works. It must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the licence of the original software.
- No Discrimination against Persons or Groups — The licence must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.
What do you mean by Digital Property Rights?
Digital Property Rights refer to intellectual property rights given to persons over the digital property created by them. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a specific period.
Mention any three ways to bridge the digital divide.
Three ways to bridge the digital divide are:
- The government should conduct awareness camps and classes for the elderly to address their hesitation of using information technology.
- All the government institutes must be encouraged to propose various computer courses at nominal fees.
- The government should provide Internet access to the remotest parts of the country.
What is Proprietary software? Mention three features of proprietary software.
Proprietary software is a copyrighted software. This software may not be freely used, modified, distributed, and is restricted by conditions predefined by its publisher, vendor, or developer.
Three features of Proprietary Software are:
- It is primarily a commercial software.
- It does not provide its source code.
- It can be purchased or licenced for a fee.
What do you mean by copyleft licences?
Copyleft licences offer users the right to run, study, share, modify, and distribute copies and modified versions of the software with the condition that the same rights be preserved for its derivatives. Copyleft licences require that the source code must be made available to the recipients. For example, GNU General Public License (GNU GPL), Eclipse Public Licence (EPL), Common Development and Distribution Licence (CDDL) etc.
Asmita belongs to an affluent family, and she wants to do something to bridge the digital divide in her community. What can she do at an individual level to bring this change?
Asmita can take the following steps at an individual level to bridge the digital divide in her community:
- She can provide unused or older digital devices like smartphones or laptops to those who can't afford them.
- She can collaborate with local ISPs or organizations to sponsor affordable or free internet access for underserved areas.
- She can organize workshops to teach digital skills, such as basic computer literacy and internet usage, to community members.
- She can enhance local libraries with computers and internet connectivity for public use.
- She can fund scholarships or educational programs that focus on digital literacy and technology training.
Abhay is going to make his first Online purchase. How should his parents guide to make him aware of the common e-commerce frauds? List the steps to prevent him from becoming a victim.
Abhay's parents should make him aware of the common e-commerce frauds by educating him about the various kinds of e-commerce frauds which are as follows:
- Misleading Product Listing
- Selling Counterfeit Products
- Unfriendly Return Policy
- Fraudulent Payment
Abhay can take the following steps to prevent him from becoming a victim of e-commerce fraud:
- Always use secured Internet connection and not a public Wi-Fi while purchasing something.
- Keep one's antivirus software up-to-date.
- Ensure the e-commerce website uses encryption protocol certificates like TLS and SSL. Check that the lock icon is present in the address bar, and the URL has an 'https', before entering payment details into any website.
- Never give personal and credit cards details over the phone.
- Read the Website's Refund Policy carefully.
- Look for grammatical errors because phishing websites often have grammatical errors in their text.