State how hydrogen occurs in the free state.
Name three compounds containing hydrogen in the combined state.
In Free state:
- In traces : Hydrogen occurs in minute traces in the earth's crust, atmosphere & in volcanic gases
- In & around the sun : Hydrogen occurs in the interior of the sun which consists mainly of hydrogen, which is converted to energy released as heat & light.
The compounds containing hydrogen are: ammonia (NH3), hydrochloric acid (HCl), water(H2O)
Starting from zinc how would you obtain hydrogen using
(b) A dilute acid
(c) An alkali
[Give balanced equations for each & name the product formed in each case other than hydrogen].
Name a metal which will not react with the reactants above to give hydrogen.
(a) Steam : Zn reacts with steam to form zinc oxide and liberate hydrogen gas.
Zn + H2O ⟶ ZnO + H2 ↑
Lead (Pb) will not react with steam to give hydrogen.
(b) A dilute acid : Zn reacts with dil. sulphuric acid to form zinc sulphate and liberate hydrogen gas.
Zn + H2SO4 ⟶ ZnSO4 + H2 ↑
Copper (Cu) will not react with dilute acid to give hydrogen.
(c) An alkali : Zn reacts with sodium hydroxide to form sodium zincate and liberate hydrogen gas.
Zn + 2NaOH ⟶ Na2ZnO2 + H2 ↑
Silver (Hg) will not react with alkali to give hydrogen.
Hydrogen is obtained by electrolysis of acidified water'. Answer the following pertaining to the preparation of hydrogen by electrolysis.
(a) The meaning of the term 'electrolysis' & 'electrolyte'.
(b) Name the electrode:
- through which the current enters the electrolyte
- at which hydrogen is liberated.
(a) Electrolysis — It is the process of decomposition of a chemical compound [electrolyte] in the fused [molten] or solution state by passage of an electric current resulting in the dissociation of the chemical compound into ions which are discharged as neutral atoms at the respective electrodes.
Electrolyte — A chemical compound which in the molten or solution state can conduct electric current & undergo chemical decomposition due to flow of current.
(b) The electrodes are:
In the laboratory preparation of hydrogen from zinc & dilute hydrochloric acid - state a reason for
(a) Addition of traces of copper [II] sulphate to the reaction medium.
(b) Collecting the hydrogen by downward displacement of water and not air & collecting it after all the air in the apparatus is allowed to escape.
(c) Having the end of the thistle funnel dip below the level of the acid in the flask.
(a) Addition of traces of copper [II] sulphate to the reaction medium enhances the speed of the reaction.
(b) Hydrogen forms a highly explosive mixture with air. Hence, it is not collected by the downward displacement of air and collected only after all the air in the apparatus is allowed to escape. As it is almost insoluble in water, so it is collected by downward displacement of water.
(c) The lower end of the thistle funnel should dip below the level of the acid in the flask, otherwise hydrogen gas produced will escape through thistle funnel.
In the industrial method of preparation of hydrogen by the Bosch process - give
(a) Balanced equations for the first two main steps in the production of hydrogen
(b) The reason for use of addition of a promoter to the catalyst in the final step.
(c) The name of the solution which absorbs the unreacted carbon monoxide.
(a) Balanced equations for first two main steps of Bosch process:
Step I — Production of water gas
Step II — Reduction of steam to hydrogen by carbon monoxide
(b) Promoter increases the efficiency of the catalyst.
(c) Ammoniacal cuprous chloride solution [CuCl].
State the following pertaining to the physical properties of hydrogen :
(a) Colour & odour
(b) Solubility in water
(c) Effect on moist blue litmus paper.
(a) Colour & odour — colourless and odourless
(b) Solubility in water — Very slightly soluble in water
(c) Effect on moist blue litmus paper — neutral to litmus
Draw labeled diagrams for two experiments to prove that - hydrogen is lighter than air.
Procedure : Bubble hydrogen gas by means of a small pipe into a dish containing soap solution.
Observation : Soap bubbles filled with H2 rise upwards.
Conclusion : Hydrogen is lighter than air hence soap bubbles filled with hydrogen rise up.
Procedure : Take two dry test tubes.
Test tube 'A' - Filled with hydrogen.
Test tube 'B' - Filled with air.
Place test tube 'B' over test tube 'A' and test the gas in the upper test tube 'B' with a glowing splinter.
Observation : A 'pop' sound is heard in test tube 'B'. [hydrogen burns with a 'pop' sound].
Conclusion : Hydrogen is lighter than air and has moved upwards displacing the air.
Starting from hydrogen gas how would you obtain
(a) A neutral liquid
(b) A basic gas
(c) A metal by reduction of its heated oxide.
[the metal formed is above iron in the activity series]
(a) Hydrogen burns quietly in oxygen with a pale blue flame and water is formed.
2H2 + O2 ⟶ 2H2O
(b) Three volumes of hydrogen, reacts with one volume of nitrogen to form ammonia which is a basic gas.
(c) Hydrogen reduces oxides of less active metals e.g. zinc to form the reduced metal & water.
ZnO + H2 ⟶ Zn + H2O
Using a burning candle and a jar of hydrogen - how would you prove experimentally that
(a) Hydrogen is a combustible gas
(b) Hydrogen does not support combustion.
Experiment : Take a jar filled with hydrogen with inverted mouth downwards and introduce a burning candle near the mouth of jar.
Observation : The gas burns at the mouth of the jar while the burning candle is extinguished when pushed inside the jar.
- Hydrogen is combustible & hence burns at the mouth of the jar.
- It does not support combustion and extinguishes a burning candle when pushed inside.
State a reason why, when hydrogen is passed over heated copper oxide, the resultant product formed, differs in colour from the original reactant.
As hydrogen is a strong reducing agent hence it reduces heated copper (II) oxide to copper. Therefore, the original black copper (II) oxide changes to reddish brown copper.
With reference to the uses of hydrogen, give reasons for the following —
(a) Hydrogen is not used in air balloons.
(b) A mixture of hydrogen & oxygen on burning, find application in welding & cutting metals
(c) Reaction of hydrogen with nitrogen under specific conditions finds industrial utility.
(a) Hydrogen is lighter than air but it is a highly combustible gas. It forms an explosive mixture with air (due to the oxygen present in it). Hence, it is not used in air balloons.
(b) A mixture of hydrogen & oxygen on burning produces heat [temperatures upto 2800°C]. Such high temperature flames are used for welding & cutting metals.
(c) Hydrogen combines with nitrogen at 450°C and in the presence of catalyst iron to give ammonia. Ammonia is used in the manufacture of urea, fertilizers, nitric acid, explosives, etc.
Give a test to differentiate between jar containing pure hydrogen & the other hydrogen-air mixture.
When a burning splinter is brought near the mouth of the gas jar containing pure hydrogen, it burns quietly with a pale blue flame whereas the other jar containing hydrogen-air mixture burns with a pop sound.
Oxidation & reduction
With reference to oxidation & reduction reactions - complete the statement given by filling in the blanks with only the words
'Oxidation is a chemical reaction involving ............... of oxygen to a substance or ............... of hydrogen from a substance. Reduction on the other hand involves ............... of hydrogen to a substance or ............... of oxygen from a substance.
'Oxidation is a chemical reaction involving addition of oxygen to a substance or removal of hydrogen from a substance. Reduction on the other hand involves addition of hydrogen to a substance or removal of oxygen from a substance.
With reference to the equation:
Cl2 + H2S ⟶ 2HCl + S
pertaining to a redox reaction - select the correct answer in each case -
(a) Chlorine is oxidised/reduced to HCl.
(b) Hydrogen sulphide is oxidised/reduced to sulphur since the reaction involves addition/removal of hydrogen.
(c) Chlorine acts as an oxidising/reducing agent.
(a) Chlorine is reduced to HCl.
(b) Hydrogen sulphide is oxidised to sulphur since the reaction involves removal of hydrogen.
(c) Chlorine acts as an oxidising agent.
Objective Type Questions
Give balanced equations for the following conversions:
Zinc to sodium zincate - using an alkali.
Acidified water to hydrogen - by electrolysis.
Water gas to hydrogen - industrially.
Iron [III] oxide to iron - using hydrogen.
Nitrogen to a basic gas - using hydrogen.
Zn + 2NaOH ⟶ Na2ZnO2 + H2 ↑
2H2O ⇌ 2H2 + O2
Fe2O3 + 3H2 ⟶ 2Fe + 3H2O
N2 + 3H2 ⇌ 2NH3
Give reasons for the following:
Copper does not displace hydrogen from dilute hydrochloric acid, but zinc does.
In the preparation of hydrogen by electrolysis of water - the distilled water used is acidified.
In the laboratory preparation of hydrogen from zinc and dilute hydrochloric acid the zinc used is granulated zinc.
In Bosch process - the final gaseous products are passed through caustic potash [KOH] soln.
The reaction of chlorine with hydrogen sulphide is deemed a redox reaction.
In the metal reactivity series, copper (Cu) is below hydrogen but zinc (Zn) is above hydrogen. Hence, copper does not displace hydrogen from dilute hydrochloric acid, but zinc does.
Pure water is almost a non-electrolyte and will not normally conduct electricity. It consists almost entirely of molecules. It can be electrolytically decomposed by addition of traces of dil. H2SO4 which dissociates as: H+1 and SO4-2 and help in dissociating water into H+ and OH- ions.
Granulated zinc contains traces of impurities, which has a slight catalyzing effect on the reaction and speeds it up.
CO2 is removed by dissolving mixture in caustic potash solution.
2KOH + CO2 ⟶ K2CO3 + H2O
Hydrogen sulphide reacts with chlorine as per the below equation:
H2S + Cl2 ⟶ 2HCl + S
Here, H2S is oxidised to S and Cl2 is reduced to HCl, at the same time. Hence, it is a redox reaction.
Select the correct answer from A, B, C, D or E for each statement given below:
D: Iron [III] oxide
E: Magnesium oxide
A metal which reacts with water to give a metallic hydroxide & liberate hydrogen.
The metallic compound used as a catalyst in Bosch process.
The metal used as a catalyst in hydrogenation of oils.
The metal which reacts with steam liberating hydrogen & the reaction is reversible.
The metallic compound formed when a metal above aluminium in the activity series reacts with steam.
A metal which reacts with water to give a metallic hydroxide & liberate hydrogen — B: Sodium
The metallic compound used as a catalyst in Bosch process — D: Iron [III] oxide
The metal used as a catalyst in hydrogenation of oils — A: Nickel
The metal which reacts with steam liberating hydrogen & the reaction is reversible — C: Iron
The metallic compound formed when a metal above aluminium in the activity series reacts with steam — E: Magnesium oxide
Select the correct answer from the choice in bracket to complete each sentence.
The acid ............... [dil.H2SO4, dil. HNO3, dil. HCl] is not used in the laboratory preparation of hydrogen, using zinc and an acid.
In Bosch process the catalytic reduction of steam to hydrogen is carried out by ............... [CO2, CO, C].
A foul smelling gas formed when hydrogen reacts with a molten non-metal is ............... [hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia].
The product formed on combustion of hydrogen in air is ............... [water gas, water, producer gas].
The gas which has now replaced hydrogen in air balloons is ............... [argon, helium, neon]
The acid dil. HNO3 is not used in the laboratory preparation of hydrogen, using zinc and an acid.
In Bosch process the catalytic reduction of steam to hydrogen is carried out by CO .
A foul smelling gas formed when hydrogen reacts with a molten non-metal is hydrogen sulphide.
The product formed on combustion of hydrogen in air is water.
The gas which has now replaced hydrogen in air balloons is helium.
Match the statements in List I with the appropriate answer in List II.
|List I||List II|
|1. An atom of hydrogen||A: Chromic oxide|
|2. A strong oxidising agent||B: Ammonia|
|3. A promoter used in Bosch process||C: Iron|
|4. A chemical used in the manufacture of fertilizers||D: One electron|
|5. The catalyst used in production of a basic gas from nitrogen||E: Dilute nitric acid|
|List I||List II|
|1. An atom of hydrogen||D: One electron|
|2. A strong oxidising agent||E: Dilute nitric acid|
|3. A promoter used in Bosch process||A: Chromic oxide|
|4. A chemical used in the manufacture of fertilizers||B: Ammonia|
|5. The catalyst used in production of a basic gas from nitrogen||C: Iron|