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Section A — Chapter 11

Rise of Dictatorships

Class 10 - Total History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

How did the Treaty of Versailles lead to the rise of dictatorship?

Answer

Italy joined the Allies in the First World War to gain territories of Turkey and Germany. But by the Treaty of Versailles, she could get only Southern Tyrol and Trentino, and the Coastal Regions of Dalmatia. She could get no part of German and Turkish colonial empire.

Germans looked down upon the Weimar Republic which had signed such a disgraceful treaty. Germany was forced to cede large chunks of her territory and her overseas colonies were divided among the Allies. Germany was forced to pay heavy reparations of 33 billion dollars and total strength of its army was fixed at one lakh. The terms of this treaty were greatly resented by the Germans who eagerly looked for an opportunity to avenge the same. These sentiments were exploited by Hitler.

Hence, the Treaty of Versailles lead to the rise of dictatorship.

Question 2

How did the failure of the League of Nations lead to the rise of dictatorship?

Answer

After the First World War, the League of Nations was established to maintain peace in the world and to prevent wars. But it proved weak and failed to achieve its aims. It failed to check the rise of dictatorships. Had it acted well in time, the ambitious plans of Mussolini and Hitler would not have materialised.

Question 3

What is meant by 'Fascism'? Why did the Italians feel that they had been deceived by the Treaty of Versailles?

Answer

'Fascism' means autocracy or dictatorship where the power of the State is vested in one man only and it is obligatory for all the others to obey his orders.

Italy joined the Allies in the First World War to gain territories of Turkey and Germany. But by the Treaty of Versailles, she could get only Southern Tyrol and Trentino, and the Coastal Regions of Dalmatia. She could get no part of the German and Turkish colonial empire.

Question 4

How did the economic crisis after the First World War create unrest in Italy?

Answer

Italy suffered heavy losses in terms of life and property in the First World War. After the War, many soldiers became unemployed. Trade and commerce were ruined leading to large-scale unemployment. There was a shortage of food grains.

Question 5

In what way was socialism a cause for the rise of Fascism in Italy?

Answer

The Socialists who included the Anarchists, the Communists and the Social Democrats created conditions conducive for the growth of Fascism in Italy. Inspired by the Russian Revolution, the Communists inflamed the atmosphere with revolutionary ideas. People wanted a powerful leadership who could establish peace and prosperity by ending lawlessness and insecurity prevalent in Italy. The industrialists viewed the growing strength of the labour unions with alarm and provided financial support to Fascism.

Question 6

State two underlying principles of Fascism.

Answer

Two underlying principles of Fascism were-

  1. Fascism was the antithesis of democracy. Fascists believed that democracy was not suitable for the country because it widens the gulf between the poor and the rich.
  2. Fascism supported one party and one leader. They believed that the country could make progress only under one leader.

Question 7

What did Mussolini do to solve the problem of unemployment?

Answer

A number of measures were undertaken to reduce unemployment. All factories and mills were nationalised to improve the lot of workers. Various syndicates were established to improve relations between the capitalists and the workers. Mussolini started an impressive public works programme which included the building of roads, bridges, canals, railways, schools, hospitals, etc.

Question 8

Give any two positive results of Fascism in Italy.

Answer

Two positive results of Fascism in Italy were-

  1. A number of measures were undertaken to reduce unemployment.
  2. All efforts were made to eradicate illiteracy by making elaborate provisions for education.

Question 9

Why did Germans feel humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles?

Answer

Defeat in the First World War and the conditions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles made the Germans feel humiliated and helpless. Germany was forced to cede large chunks of her territory to France, Belgium, Poland and Denmark. Her overseas possessions were divided by the Allies in the War among themselves. Germany was forced to pay heavy reparations to the tune of 33 billion dollars and the total strength of the German army was fixed at one lakh.

Question 10

Why was the economic burden of Germany greater than that of other countries?

Answer

As a result of the harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany had to suffer in agricultural production, colonies, foreign investment, trade contracts, etc. The foreign countries raised tariffs against the German goods. The number of unemployed people increased. The condition of the farmers became miserable. By June 1931, debts on farmers had risen to $300 million.

Question 11

In what way was the failure of Weimar Republic responsible for the introduction of Nazism?

Answer

Germans looked down upon the Weimar Republic which had signed such a disgraceful treaty of Versailles. The Germans could not reconcile with the democratic parliamentary system prevailing in their country. They preferred prestige and glory to liberty and freedom. They felt that only a strong man could restore the past prestige of Germany and check the rising popularity of Communism. When Hitler promised them all glory, they welcomed him with open arms.

Question 12

How did the spread of Communism lead to the rise of Nazism in Germany?

Answer

After the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, the Communist influence in Germany increased considerably. The Communists organised themselves effectively and succeeded in capturing a number of seats in Reichstag. Hitler warned the people that Communists of Germany would become the servants of their Russian masters and would follow the dictates of Communists.

He tried to persuade the people in Germany that Nazism alone could check the growing influence of Communists.

Question 13

Give any two features of Nazism.

Answer

Two features of Nazism were-

  1. The people exist for the state and not the state for the people.
  2. To tolerate no opposition or criticism and to allow no other party formation.

Question 14

Name the book in which Hitler first expressed Nazi principles. Name the country where the Nazi party came to power in 1933. Give one positive and one negative result of Nazism in Germany.

Answer

The book in which Hitler first expressed Nazi principles is Mein Kampf.

In 1933, the Nazi party came to power in Germany.

One positive result of Nazism in Germany was that special efforts were made to increase the military force of the country. Military training was made compulsory which again created more employment.

One negative result of Nazism in Germany was that Hitler put an end to civil liberties.

Question 15

Do you think that the aims of the Fascists and Nazis could have brought lasting peace and prosperity to their countries? Do you agree with those aims? Why?

Answer

No, the aims of the Fascists and Nazis couldn't have brought lasting peace and prosperity to their countries.

No, I don't agree with those aims because every human being has the right to live his live freely. Violence and oppression can never foster peace in a country.

Question 16

Did the totalitarian governments have an appeal to the masses? Why?

Answer

Yes, the totalitarian governments have an appeal to the masses because the democratic governments in Italy and Germany were unable to deal effectively with the problems of unemployment, strikes and riots. The people wanted a strong and capable government which could establish stability and solve their problems.

Structured Questions

Question 1

With reference to the rise of dictatorship in Europe after the First World War, answer the following questions:

(a) How did class conflicts lead to the rise of dictatorship that emerged in Italy and Germany after the First World War?

(b) How did the decline of democracy help in the rise of dictatorship in Italy and Germany?

(c) What was the reason for the failure of the League of Nations?

Answer

(a) Class conflict increased in many countries after the First World War.

  1. The real issue in most parts of continental Europe was whether control of government and economic systems would continue in the possession of aristocracies or would be in the hands of less privileged majorities.
  2. The common man had been promised, during the War, that he would be rewarded by greater attention to his economic needs.
  3. These promises were ignored and the common man was embittered.

(b) Democracy was introduced in Italy for the first time in 1919.

  1. Elections failed to give a clear majority to a single party.
  2. As a result, there was complete instability in the country and between 1919 and 1922 six coalition governments were formed in Italy.
  3. The various political parties had different policies and programmes and there was no continuity in their policies.
  4. They were unable to deal effectively with the problems of unemployment, strikes and riots which took place during 1921-22.
  5. This situation was fully exploited by the Fascists under the leadership of Mussolini, who promised the people a strong national government.
  6. The rise of the Nazi Party in Germany was facilitated by the absence of any strong opposition party.
  7. As a result, the Nazi Party did not encounter any effective resistance and its popularity achieved great heights.

(c) The failure of the League of Nations can be attributed to the following reasons-

  1. United States of America was not a member of League of Nations.
  2. Big nations of the League of Nations, who were the Super Powers in the world, were very self-seeking.
  3. The League of Nations had no such powers as to get its edicts enforced.
  4. In the absence of any sovereign power, the League of Nations was unable to take any effective action against the aggressor, and this became the main reason behind the failure of the League of Nations.
  5. The League of Nations did not have its own army and hence, it could not prove to be effective.

Question 2

Due to Fascism, Italy made progress in different spheres of life and became a powerful nation. With reference to the results of Fascism in Italy, explain the following:

(a) Reforms introduced in Italy to improve the economic condition of the people.

(b) Aggressive foreign policy under Mussolini.

(c) Negative impact of Fascism in Italy.

Answer

(a) Mussolini introduced various reforms to improve the economic condition of the people in Italy.

  1. He took measures to stall further devaluation of the Italian currency.
  2. A number of measures were undertaken to reduce unemployment.
  3. All factories and mills were nationalised to improve the lot of workers.
  4. Various syndicates were established to improve relations between the capitalists and the workers.
  5. Mussolini started an impressive public works programme which included the building of roads, bridges, canals, railways, schools, hospitals, etc.

(b) Mussolini used to say, "Italy must expand or perish."

  1. He regained the Islands of Rhodes, Dodecanese as well as the city of Fiume.
  2. He turned Albania into a protectorate of Italy.
  3. He entered into commercial and diplomatic treaties with France and Russia.
  4. He captured Abyssinia in 1936 and when there was an objection in the League of Nations, Italy left the League of Nations.
  5. After that, Italy's relations with England and France deteriorated and she was drawn towards Germany.

(c) Besides the positive impacts, there were many negative effects of Fascism in Italy.

  1. All efforts were made to curb political freedom.
  2. After gaining power, Mussolini became a dictator and took all the military and civil powers into his own hands.
  3. All political parties except the Fascists were banned.
  4. The system of Jury was abolished and special courts were set up where the Fascist civilian and military officers were empowered to decide political cases.
  5. Press was censored.
  6. The freedom of speech and organising meetings was also prohibited.
  7. Mussolini crushed his opponents brutally.

Question 3

In the post World War I scenario, Italy and Germany experienced the rise of dictatorships. In this context, explain:

(a) Any three circumstances that led to the rise of Fascism in Italy.

(b) Any three domestic policies of Hitler.

(c) How were the foreign policies of Hitler responsible for the outbreak of the Second World War?

Answer

(a) Three circumstances that led to the rise of Fascism in Italy were as follows-

  1. Discontentment after the Treaty of Versailles — Italy joined the Allies in the First World War to gain territories of Turkey and Germany. But she could get no part of the German and Turkish colonial empire.
  2. Economic Crisis — Italy suffered heavy losses in terms of life and property in the First World War. After the War, many soldiers became unemployed. Trade and commerce were ruined leading to large-scale unemployment. There was a shortage of food grains.
  3. Political Instability — Democracy was introduced in Italy for the first time in 1919. Elections failed to give a clear majority to a single party. As a result, there was instability in the country and between 1919 and 1922 six coalition governments were formed in Italy. The various political parties had different policies and programmes and there was no continuity in their policies. They were unable to deal effectively with the problems of unemployment, strikes and riots which took place during 1921-22. This situation was fully exploited by the Fascists under the leadership of Mussolini, who promised the people a strong national government.

(b) Three domestic policies of Hitler were as follows-

  1. Hitler launched the first Five-year plan to have greater production. The economic life of the country was organised with the objectives of removing unemployment and making the nation self-sufficient.
  2. Special efforts were made to increase the military force of the country. Military training was made compulsory which again created more employment.
  3. Strict censor was imposed on books, the press and the cinema. All anti-Nazi books and magazines were consigned to fire.

(c) Hitler resorted to the policy of territorial expansion and fortification of Germany.

  1. He tried to acquire more territories for the surplus German population.
  2. He tried to expand in South and East of Europe because that region was economically useful for Germany as it possessed huge potential for wheat, oil and coal.
  3. To attain this objective, Hitler made use of force and rejected all compromises.
  4. He entered into a non-aggression treaty with Poland for a period of ten years in 1934 for the safety of his eastern frontiers.
  5. He reclaimed the territory of Saar and Rhineland from France.
  6. In 1938, he annexed Austria by force. He concluded a non-aggression pact with Russia.

Question 4

With reference to Nazism, answer the following questions:

(a) What were the aims of Nazism?

(b) How did Hitler establish a totalitarian State in Germany?

(c) State two similarities between the causes that led to the rise of Fascism and Nazism?

Answer

(a) The aims of Nazism were as follows-

  1. To exalt nationalism
  2. To advocate the rule by a great leader from a single party
  3. To despise internationalism, peace and democracy
  4. To use force and brutality
  5. To extol war
  6. To uphold the racial supremacy of the Germans and to hate Jews.

(b) Hitler had no faith in the parliamentary system of government.

  1. He eradicated all those elements which offered opposition to his authority.
  2. He concentrated all power into his hands, suppressed all opposition and propagated the ideology of Nazism.
  3. He changed the federal government into a unitary government.
  4. Hitler himself became the Governor of Prussia.
  5. All provincial legislatures were dissolved in 1934 and the sovereign power of the central government was established.
  6. Various political parties were abolished.
  7. A ban was imposed on the press, public speeches and writing of articles.
  8. Even the members of the Nazi party who challenged Hitler's authority were severely dealt with.
  9. A secret police known as the Gestapo, kept a check on the activities of citizens.
  10. Those suspected of disloyalty to the State were arrested or executed without trial.

(c) Two similarities between the causes that led to the rise of Fascism and Nazism were as follows-

Discontentment after the Treaty of Versailles

  1. Italy joined the Allies in the First World War to gain territories of Turkey and Germany.
  2. But she could get no part of the German and Turkish colonial empire.
  3. Germans looked down upon the Weimar Republic which had signed such a disgraceful treaty.
  4. The terms of this treaty were greatly resented by the Germans who eagerly looked for an opportunity to avenge the same.

Economic crisis

  1. Italy suffered heavy losses in terms of life and property in the First World War.
  2. Unemployment and decline in agriculture and trade made life difficult.
  3. Germany had to suffer in agricultural production, colonies, foreign investment, trade contracts, etc.
  4. The foreign countries raised tariffs against the German goods.

Picture Study

Question 1

Study the picture and answer the questions that follow:

Identify the leader in the picture. Give two examples to state that the leader followed an expansionist policy. State three factors that led to the rise of Fascism. State four similarities between the ideologies of Nazism and Fascism. Rise of Dictatorships, Total History and Civics Solutions ICSE Class 10.

(a) Identify the leader in the picture. Give two examples to state that the leader followed an expansionist policy.

(b) State three factors that led to the rise of Fascism.

(c) State four similarities between the ideologies of Nazism and Fascism.

Answer

(a) The leader shown in the picture is Benito Mussolini.

Two examples to state that Mussolini followed an expansionist policy are as follows-

  1. He regained the Islands of Rhodes, Dodecanese as well as the city of Fiume.
  2. He turned Albania into a protectorate of Italy.

(b) Three factors that led to the rise of Fascism were-

  1. Discontentment after the Treaty of Versailles — Italy joined the Allies in the First World War to gain territories of Turkey and Germany. But by the Treaty of Versailles, she could get only Southern Tyrol and Trentino, and the Coastal Regions of Dalmatia. She could get no part of the German and Turkish colonial empire.
  2. Economic crisis — Italy suffered heavy losses in terms of life and property in the First World War. After the War, many soldiers became unemployed. Trade and commerce were ruined leading to large-scale unemployment. There was a shortage of food grains.
  3. Class conflict — Class conflict increased in many countries after the First World War. The real issue in most parts of continental Europe was whether control of government and economic systems would continue in the possession of aristocracies or would be in the hands of less privileged majorities. The common man had been promised, during the War, that he would be rewarded by greater attention to his economic needs. These promises were ignored and the common man was embittered.

(c) Four similarities between the ideologies of Nazism and Fascism were-

  1. To have faith in the totalitarian rule.
  2. To despise democratic political systems.
  3. To uphold One-Party and one leader.
  4. To believe in aggressive nationalism and imperialism.
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