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Civics — Chapter 3

Salient Features of the Constitution — II

Class 9 - Total History & Civics Solutions


Short Answer Questions

Question 1

What are known as Directive Principles of State Policy?

Answer

The Directive Principles of state policy are the guidelines to be followed by the government in the governance of the country. They are not a substitute for laws of the country. The government has to take them into consideration while making laws.

Question 2

In which part of the constitution are Directive Principles incorporated?

Answer

Directive Principles are incorporated in part IV of the constitution, under Article 36 to 51.

Question 3

Name one important source of Directive Principles.

Answer

The Charter of Human Rights framed by the United Nations is one of the important sources of Directive Principles.

Question 4

When the Directive Principles are not enforceable by law courts, why have they been incorporated in the Constitution?

Answer

The Directive Principles are not enforceable by law courts, still they are very important. This importance stems from following:

  1. Directive Principles are in the nature of a pledge made by the framers of the Constitution to the people of India. They provide a framework, political, social and economic programme for a modern democratic State.
  2. The Directive Principles give guidelines to the governments to make laws and draft their policies, according to these fundamental principles. They provide an element of permanence in a democracy.
  3. They provide a measure to judge a government's performance.
  4. They enlighten and educate the people of what they can expect from the politicians whom they vote to power.
  5. They provide a direction to Courts in respect of safeguarding the rights of the citizens.

Question 5

What happens in case of any conflict between the Directive Principles and Fundamental Rights? Give reason to support your answer.

Answer

In case of any conflict between the Directive Principles and Fundamental Rights, the former shall prevail. This is because the welfare of the people as a whole is of paramount importance over that of an individual.

Question 6

Name any one measure taken by the Government towards implementation of the Directive Principles of State Policy.

Answer

'The Right to Education' Act is one of the measures taken by the Government towards implementation of the Directive Principles of State Policy.

The Right to Education Act has made it mandatory for every child between the ages of 6-14 to be provided free education in all government and government aided schools. The Act also requires all private schools to reserve 25% of seats for the children belonging to economically weaker sections of the society as a part of the public-private partnership plan.

Structured Questions

Question 1

There are differences of opinion regarding the significance of both the Directive Principles and the Fundamental Rights. In this context explain the following:

(a) State any three differences between the Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy.

(b) How do the Directive Principles complement Fundamental Rights?

(c) What is the importance of Directive Principles?

Answer

(a) Three differences between Directive Principles and Fundamental Rights are:

Sl. No.Directive PrinciplesFundamental Rights
1Directive Principles are provided in Part-IV of the constitution.Fundamental Rights are provided in Part-III of the constitution.
2Directive Principles are not justiciable or enforceable by any court of law.Fundamental Rights are justiciable. The citizens can seek protection from a High Court or Supreme Court in case of infringement.
3Directive Principles are meant for the government to create certain privileges for the citizensFundamental Rights are privileges in existence for the citizens to enjoy.

(b) Although the Directive Principles are not justiciable like Fundamental Rights but they are necessary for creating an atmosphere where Fundamental Rights can be enjoyed. The Directive Principles give guidelines to the Government to make laws and draft their policies in accordance to the welfare of people. They provide a direction to the Courts in respect of safeguarding the rights of the citizens. Thus we can say that the Directive Principles and the Fundamental Rights complement each other.

(c) The importance of the Directive Principles are following:

  1. Directive Principles are in the nature of a pledge made by the framers of the Constitution to the people of India. They provide a framework, political, social and economic programme for a modern democratic State.
  2. The Directive Principles give guidelines to the governments to make laws and draft their policies, according to these fundamental principles. They provide an element of permanence in a democracy.
  3. They provide a measure to judge a government's performance.
  4. They enlighten and educate the people of what they can expect from the politicians whom they vote to power.
  5. They provide a direction to Courts in respect of safeguarding the rights of the citizens.
  6. The Directive Principles direct the government to move towards the goal of a Welfare State. They reflect the ideas of Justice, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity mentioned in the Preamble.
  7. Since public opinion backs the Directive Principles, the goal of establishing social and economic order is clearly laid out before the government.
  8. The 42nd Amendment Act, 1976 provides that if a law is made to give effect to any of the Directive Principles it will not be declared unconstitutional even if it takes away any of the rights under Articles 14, 19 and 31.

Question 2

With reference to the concept of a 'Welfare State', answer the following questions:

(a) What is meant by a 'Welfare State'?

(b) How does the Constitution of India seek to establish India as a Welfare State?

(c) Mention any four government schemes aimed at social upliftment of the poor.

Answer

(a) A Welfare State is a state which seeks to ensure the maximum happiness of maximum number of people living within its territory.

(b) The Constitution of India seeks to established India as a Welfare State. Although the words "Welfare State" are not specifically mentioned in the constitution, the aims and objectives of a Welfare State are clearly pointed out in the Directive Principles of State Policy. These Directives emphasise that the goal of the Indian Polity is a Welfare State, where the State has a positive duty to ensure to its citizens social and economic justice and dignity to the individual.

(c) Four government schemes aimed at social upliftment of the poor are:

  1. Ayushman Bharat Yojna
  2. Pradhan Mantri Samaan Nidhi Yojana
  3. Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana
  4. Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana (Housing for All)
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